The Extent Of Utilization Of Instructional Facilities For Effective Teaching Of Computer Graphics In Secondary Schools In Udenu Educational Zone In Enugu State

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The Extent Of Utilization Of Instructional Facilities For Effective Teaching Of Computer Graphics In Secondary Schools In Udenu Educational Zone In Enugu State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the extent of utilization of instructional facilities for effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State. The study was specifically set to ascertain whether there is an adequate provision of instructional facilities for the effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State, ascertain the extent Computer sets are utilized for the teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State, ascertain the extent Internet service and softwares are utilized for the teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State, and determine whether an adequate utilization of instructional facilities promotes the effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of computer graphics teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is no adequate provision of instructional facilities for the effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State. Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that adequate utilization of instructional facilities promotes the effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State. Therefore, it is recommended that instructional materials should be provided by the Ministry of Education for effective teaching and learning of computer studies. Other Stakeholders like the PTA should also make effort to provide teaching materials to schools. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In recognition of the prominent role of Computer Science Education (CSE) in advancing knowledge and skills necessary for effective functioning in the modern world, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) was introduced into secondary education in Nigeria. Computer education is of paramount importance to national development and it is on this premise that the government of Nigeria sought to introduce computer studies in the education system from primary through to tertiary institutions. Shelly, Cashman and Vermaat (2008) says “computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules, produce results, and store the results for future use.

Computer science according to Brookshear (2013) is “a discipline that seeks to build a scientific foundation for such topics as computer design, computer programming, information processing algorithmic solutions problems, and the algorithmic process itself”. Brookshear (2013) continues to say computer science “provides the underpinnings for today’s computer applications as well as the foundations for tomorrow’s computing infrastructure”. Computer in education can be defined as the process of training and instructing children and young people on how to use and operate the computer to develop basic skills in computing and making contributions to the society. The computer science education curriculum content should be packaged in such a way that it will cover all the necessary area that supposedly affect the teaching and learning of computer science so that students’ performance in the course of study would be enhanced. Teachers and learners alike must approach computer science with an open mind for them to engage in a meaningful interaction during the processes of teaching and learning of computer science.

Computer graphics is a sub-field of computer science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content. Computer graphics is a significant development in visual education because of its uses in medicine, sciences, engineering and education. Images generated through computer graphics are static and when made motion they are called computer animation (Dewey, 2017).

It has been observed empirically that the use of computer graphics in instruction has been successful in several disciplines (Salandanan, 2005). Computer graphics is receiving much attention in the development of interactive educational software, multimedia systems and many other applications. If skillfully utilized it can be a component of computer assisted instruction which has wonderful potentials. Computer graphics are static visuals created using computers and more generally, the representation and manipulation o f image data b y a computer with help from specialized software and hardware. The development of computer graphics has made computers easier to interact with and better for understanding and interpreting many types of data. Developments in computer graphics have had a profound impact o n many visualized instructiona l technology’ drive n strategies (Simpson & Weiner, 2021).
“A subject that tries to create a scientific foundation for such issues as computer design, computer programming, information processing algorithmic solutions challenges, and the algorithmic process itself,” according to Brookshear (2013).

The process of teaching and instructing children and young people on how to use and operate computers in order to build fundamental computing skills and contribute to society may be termed as computer in education. The computer graphics education curriculum material should be prepared in such a manner that it covers all of the important areas that presumably impact computer graphics teaching and learning in order to improve students’ performance throughout their studies. Teachers and students must both approach computer graphics with an open mind if they are to have a meaningful engagement during the teaching and learning process (Cashman, 2010).

Any set school curriculum need methods of implementation in order to achieve the goals at various levels. Teaching and learning methods are pre-planned activities that take place throughout the presentation of the curriculum. Students are brought into contact with the subject matter through discussions, tutorials, lectures, discoveries, and demonstrations. This contact’s effectiveness necessitates activities and educational materials. This might take the shape of symbolic and graphical representations, genuine items and specimens, experimentation, and demonstrations.

One of the ideas that instructors must keep in mind, according to Imosie (2012), is that man learns by his senses. He went on to say that some kids learn better through one of the senses or the other. Some people believe that seeing is believing, whereas others believe that hearing, touch, smell, and taste are the most important senses in learning. The instructor must communicate effectively with the students in order for the intended learning to take place. To accomplish effective communication between himself and his pupils, the teacher must have a basic understanding of the communication process, which will allow him to have a wider range of options for conveying his message to his students. According to Mundi (2008), the greatest strategy to assist pupils in learning is to expose them to the world that education is intended to present to them. This is accomplished by using genuine objects in real-life situations. Teaching materials are the genuine items that are utilized to improve learning. Materials, equipment, or strategies that assist the instructor in taking a realistic approach to his or her job are referred to as teaching materials. Whether actual or made-up, these representations all have the same goal: to assist the instructor in successfully and meaningfully transmitting the intended information to the students so that they absorb, comprehend, retain, and apply the knowledge obtained to achieve overall educational goals. Instructional materials are those that assist pupils to form a mental image of what has been taught and to remember the lesson for a long time. Radio, television, chalkboards, charts, micro-projectors, still photos, specimens, and other instructional resources are all available (Ogoma, 2011). It may be defined as the tools that the classroom instructor use to impart information to students in order to meet his objectives. Instructional materials are those that are used to make teaching and learning easier. It allows the instructor to easily explain ideas or concepts by appealing to several senses at the same time (Mundi, 2008).

Computer studies is more of a practical learning learning experience than a theoretical one. As a result, teachers should create settings that allow children to learn more quickly and efficiently (Eya, 2013). To make teaching and learning easier, the instructor should use appropriate teaching materials. Computers, which include the keyboard, mouse, monitor, processor, interface, printers, and disk drives, as well as laboratories, projected pictures, textbooks, and chalk boards, are examples of teaching materials. Without the availability of these instructional materials materials in schools, the use of the aforementioned instructional materials in teaching and learning computer science in secondary schools would not be able to achieve its goals. There is also an increased demand on the time and expertise of instructors (Eze, 2011).

Previous research has criticized the lack of availability and/or use of instructional resources for studying computer science and other topics in Nigeria. Adedijio (2010) found that the availability of instructional resources for teaching and learning is quite poor. According to Neboh (2011), public schools require four different types of teaching resources: two-dimensional materials, three-dimensional materials, audio materials, and audio-visual materials. According to studies, most audio and audio-visual materials such as cassette recorders, tape-recorded materials, radio, projectors, film strips, slides, transparencies, television, and video recorders are not available in most Nigerian schools, and when they are, they are insufficient (Eya, 2013). While textbooks and two-dimensional resources for computer studies are commonly available in schools, three-dimensional materials, audio materials, audio visual, computers, and computer laboratories are not available in most Nigerian secondary schools (Adedijio, 2010). This is a circumstance that severely impedes efficient computer science teaching and learning, as well as the development of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) skills among Nigerian secondary school pupils (Akanbi, 2008). According to Mkpa (2007) many instructors are hesitant to employ instructional materials in the classroom due to their perceived value. Many teachers, he claims, used teaching materials last when they were being evaluated or observed for certification. They no longer bother to use the resources because such supervision is now rare. According to Enem (2012), some instructors find it difficult to employ instructional resources in their courses, owing to a lack of enthusiasm, resourcefulness, or poor training on the need for and how to use instructional materials. This goes a long way toward demonstrating that the problem with the utilization of teaching materials in the classroom is intertwined (Akanbi, 2008). The materials needed for computer science education may not be available, and even if they are, instructors may choose not to utilize them owing to a lack of knowledge or a refusal to put in extra effort to improve their professional competence. This necessitates an investigation into the availability and extent of teaching materials used in the learning of computer science in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State’s Ikwo Local Government Area.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is impossible to overestimate the value of having and using teaching materials when learning computer graphics (Eze, 2014). Students’ interest in learning is piqued when instructional materials are made available and efficiently used in secondary schools. This provides a good realism of experience, which motivates self-activity on the part of the students. Despite these benefits, there are questions about whether teaching resources are available in our secondary schools, and if they are, if they are used. As a result, an examination of the teaching and learning of computer science in our secondary school system is required (Akanbi, 2008). Given this situation, the purpose of this study was to determine the extent of utilization of instructional facilities for effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study’s main goal is to examine the extent of utilization of instructional facilities for effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State. The study specifically attempted to:

  1. Ascertain whether there is an adequate provision of instructional facilities for the effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State.
  2. Ascertain the extent Computer sets are utilized for the teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State.
  3. Ascertain the extent Internet service and softwares are utilized for the teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State.
  4. Determine whether an adequate utilization of instructional facilities promotes the effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State.

1.4 Research Questions:

  1. Is there an adequate provision of instructional facilities for the effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State?
  2. What is the extent Computer sets are utilized for the teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State?
  3. What is the extent Internet service and softwares are utilized for the teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State?
  4. Does adequate utilization of instructional facilities promotes the effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Adequate utilization of instructional facilities does not promotes the effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State.
  • Ha: Adequate utilization of instructional facilities promotes the effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The government will profit from this study since it will be able to identify schools that lack certain teaching materials and make steps to give them.Student learning becomes easier when teaching materials are available and utilized.
Teachers of computer science who will use the findings of this study to make their classes more easy, entertaining, and understandable. The findings of this study will provide parents more information on which schools to take their children to when they finish elementary school. The study’s recommendations will go a long way toward encouraging educators to look within in order to tackle the challenge of computer teaching and learning in secondary schools.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on the extent of utilization of instructional facilities for effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State. Hence the study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Teaching Materials:

Facilities given to students, so that they can use every opportunity to develop full potential. Instructional materials include fixtures, equipment, and buildings necessary for the effective and efficient operation of the program of public education.

Teaching:

Teaching can be defined as engagement with learners to enable their understanding and application of knowledge, concepts and processes. It includes design, content selection, delivery, assessment and reflection.

Computer Studies:

Computer science is the study of computers and computing as well as their theoretical and practical applications.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the extent of utilization of instructional facilities for effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the extent of utilization of instructional facilities for effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain whether there is an adequate provision of instructional facilities for the effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State, ascertain the extent Computer sets are utilized for the teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State, ascertain the extent Internet service and softwares are utilized for the teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State, and determine whether an adequate utilization of instructional facilities promotes the effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are computer graphics teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. There is no adequate provision of instructional facilities for the effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State.
  2. The extent Computer sets are utilized for the teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State is low.
  3. The extent Internet service and softwares are utilized for the teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State is low.
  4. Adequate utilization of instructional facilities promotes the effective teaching of computer graphics in secondary schools in Udenu Educational Zone in Enugu State.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Instructional materials should be provided by the Ministry of Education for effective teaching and learning of computer studies. Other Stakeholders like the PTA should also make effort to provide teaching materials to schools.
  2. The pre-service teachers curriculum in the colleges of education should emphasize the use of instructional materials in computer studies teaching.
  3. Teachers should be fully and adequately trained to make use of instructional materials through regular workshops and seminars.
  4. Training and re-training programmes should be embarked upon by the government to assist and foster positive teachers’ attitude towards making improvisation as part of their duty.

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