The Extent Of Secondary School Students Involvement In Cultism And It’s Effect On Their Academic Achievement
This study was carried out on the extent of secondary school students involvement in cultism and it’s effect on their academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State. The study was specifically set to find out the extent secondary school students involvement in cultism, ascertain whether cult activities disrupt academic calendar in secondary school, find out the causes of cultism on students academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State and find out the effects of cultism on students academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of secondary school studentsin Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent secondary school students involvement in cultism is high. Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that the effects of cultism on students academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State includes: robbery, drug addict, kidnapping/abduction, murder and extortion. Therefore, it is recommended that the parents must give their children proper parental guidance to avoid bad peer influence. It also recommends that educational curriculum must be reviewed to give our youths a sense of direction and the acquisition of right skills and competence. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Cultism is one of the most embarrassing problems challenging secondary schools in Nigeria. The menace of cultism in our secondary schools is increasing thereby making our society unsafe. Virtually all segments of our society had become prone to the pervasive influence of violence, especially campus violence. Never before has the desire for the destruction of lives and property in our society been so great or escalated so fast and out of proportion as now. There is hardly any academic session that passes without reported cases of murder, rape, maiming, and assaults in our secondary schools. Okwu (2006) reported that an estimated five thousand students and teachers had lost their lives in Nigerian secondary schools as a result of cult-related violent clashes.
“According to watch tower magazine of June 1st 1977” much as been written in news papers, magazines and books about the lurid deeds of cult groups. The detail of the wide spread of violent activities called cult group had been cured on national television and radio as well It has become a major problem for the police officers in both small and bigger cities such as America Canada and in Nigeria e.t.c basically in this country (Nigeria) cult activities had led to wanton destruction of lives and properties and also educational activities in our secondary schools of learning. For example, in Uselu secondary schools on the 15th of February 2007. a clash between the black axe and the Eiye cult groups left many students injured. On another occasion, in the same school (Uselu) on 29th June 2008 a boy name Osas was attacked and spent several months at the hospital. In Adolor College, on play 16th 2008, innocent students were attacked by a cult group beating and taking their valuables. Recently in Uselu secondary school, on 16thJune 2009, two girls (students of Uselu Secondary school) were rapped as they were about been initiated into a cult group.
Therefore, these horrible cult activities have contributed in no small measure to the supervision of many students from school and also to the incessant closure of schools. In a nut shell, cultism has become a matter of concern not only to parents and teachers but also to government in general. James V.I. Ishekhure (2005). It is not gain saying that cultism is satanic all over the world youths are the easy prey to these satanic groups. The future of our nations (Nigeria) lies in the hands of today youth. If cultism is playing our citadels of learning (where the mind and character of youths are being shaped for good) then the very foundation of our national development is shaking.
The umbrella name of groups that unleash terror in academic communities across Nigeria is called secret cult. Ogunbameru (2004) defined secret cult as any form of organization whose activities are not only exclusively kept away from the knowledge of others, but such activities are carried out at odd hours of the day and they often clash with the accepted norms and values of everyday life. They are secret to the extent of their subterranean nature which is manifested by their secret membership, assemblies, rituals and violent methods. Okwu (2006) viewed cultism as barbaric, clandestine and a diabolical evil association that has lost contact with sanity and acceptable societal norms.
The recent destructive cult activities in our secondary schools are mind-bogging, irritating and distasteful. These clandestine and violent activities include amongst others: extortion, rape, blackmail, arson, robbery, and drug abuse, drug trafficking, kidnapping/abduction, hijacking, maiming and murder. Lives of promising young men and women had been led astray or cut short in the hands of these bloody and murderous gangs on campus. Secret cultism is an evil wind that does no one any good. Parents, lecturers and law enforcement agents must work in synergy to ensure that this evil is put under control in our environment.
Involvement in secret cults in our secondary schools has ruined the lives of thousands of our talented youths in south-south region of Nigeria and the world at large. It is however on record that most of the casualties of secret cultism membership is by ignorance. Some of the pseudo reasons for joining secret cult and its attendant dangers are highlighted herein.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Cultism in our secondary schools and our societies has left much to be desired. Many of our youths are drop-outs, street boys and girls, have been maimed and many have even lost their lives thereby leaving parents and loved ones in perpetual agony. Members of the public and the cultists themselves attribute this to ignorance, to greed, parental upbringing etc.
It has been seen that many people across the strata of the society have. That the standard and academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria is falling very fast, it is against this background that geared towards investigating the problem of cultism in our secondary schools and its effect on student’s academic performance are as follows:
- It causes tension to other students not involved in such an act
- It causes insecurity.
When we say that the effect of cult activities, it means basically that, it causes their feelings to tense or tightly stretched. Also when we say that it causes insecurity incessantly It means basically that, it causes their feelings to tense or tightly stretched also when we say that it causes insecurity incessantly. It means that other students are unsaved continually without stopping. The researcher is therefore interested to find out what leads young people to these cult groups and how it affects their academic achievement.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The ultimate purpose of this study is to examinethe extent of secondary school students involvement in cultism and it’s effect on their academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State. Specifically the study seeks to:
- Find out the extent secondary school students involvement in cultism.
- Ascertain whether cult activities disrupt academic calendar in secondary school.
- Find out the causes of cultism on students academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State.
- Find out the effects of cultism on students academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State.
1.4 Research Question
- What is the extent secondary school students involvement in cultism?
- Does cult activities disrupt academic calendar in secondary school?
- What is the causes of cultism on students academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State?
- What is the effects of cultism on students academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- Ho: Students involvement in cultism does not have negative effect on their academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State.
- Ha: Students involvement in cultism has a negative effect on their academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that, the findings of this study will be great important to both educators and the students in general. The study will be of benefit to the educational administrators, policy makers and students un particular to identify the causes and effect, of cult activities on educational standard of secondary schools in the country. With that motivating factor that leads the youth to part take or join cult groups unidentified, the school administrators would be in a better position to handle problems related to cultism.
The study can also lead to other researchable variables with a view to find better solution to cultism in our schools i.e. primary secondary and our higher institutions.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study seeks to examine the extent of secondary school students involvement in cultism and it’s effect on their academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State. The respondents of this study will be derived from secondary school students.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Due to the shortness of time and limited period allocated for the writing of the project, the researcher could not thoroughly carry out a more detailed elaborated work. Besides combining lectures assignment and test did not make it an easier task.
Absence of currently published materials, such as journals and publications related to the topic posed another serious limitation to the study.
Traveling from Auchi to Aviele along Benin Auchi express way with motorcycle in search of materials for effective work did not make the study an easier task with all these put together. There was no way the researcher could prevent any of them from effecting the final write up of this project work.
Nevertheless, the best was still put in place, in using the available materials.
1.9 Definition of Terms
It is the state/phenomenon where a person is bound together with common belief.
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter (chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the extent of secondary school students involvement in cultism and it’s effect on their academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine on the extent of secondary school students involvement in cultism and it’s effect on their academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State. The study is was specifically carried out to find out the extent secondary school students involvement in cultism, ascertain whether cult activities disrupt academic calendar in secondary school, find out the causes of cultism on students academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State and find out the effects of cultism on students academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent aresecondary school studentsin Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- The extent secondary school students involvement in cultism is high.
- Cult activities disrupt academic calendar in secondary school.
- The causes of cultism on students academic achievement in Ejigbo LGA, Lagos State includes: peer pressure, parental background and ignorance.
- Cultism affects the students academic achievement in various ways which include; disruption of academic calendar, increase in truancy, disruption of effective teaching and learning activities, destruction of infrastructural and learning facilities, and decreases students motivation and study habit.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- Parents must give their children proper parental guidance to avoid bad peer influence.
- Religious institutions must inculcate the right values and norms that will instill the fear of God and right attitudes in our youths.
- Educational curriculum must be reviewed to give our youths a sense of direction and the acquisition of right skills and competence.
- Government must enact stringent laws against cultism and be prepared to punish offenders.
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