The Extent Of Intake Of Alcohol On Students’ Academic Achievement In Tertiary Institutions In Nigeria
1.1 Background of the Study
(Adeyemo, 2007) opined that alcohol use has socioeconomic and sociocultural consequences for individuals in society, particularly students. It is offered and used at ceremonies, oaths, vows, celebrations, and other enjoyable activities. In the early years, it was used as a symbol of admiration and respect in the colonial era. Palm-wine tapped from oil-palm trees and raffia-palms was a popular alcoholic beverage in the south-east area. Okonkwo (2018) stated that, beginning in the fourteenth century, encounters between Europeans and the natives of eastern Nigeria, notably during the Atlantic slave trade period, primarily introduced a variety of alcoholic beverages, gin and tonic and whisky.
Alcohol intake, as described in this study, is an excessive intake of liquid substances formed by the fermentation of sugar, such as palm-win, dry-gin, beer, and whiskey, which alter the body system or create further harm to an individual’s health. Alcohol intake, as described in this study, is an excessive intake of liquid substances formed by the fermentation of sugar, such as palm-win, dry-gin, beer, and whiskey, which alter the body system or create further harm to an individual’s health (Adeyemo, 2007).
Awoyinfa, (2012) stated that heavy alcohol use may be linked to poor academic performance among postsecondary students. This habit has made its way into the Nigerian educational environment, where undergraduate students may be spotted drinking alcohol at pubs and restaurants, as well as other secluded spots a few meters away from school. Some of these youngsters spend the whole day at such venues, returning home only after school. Alcohol misuse, defined in the context of this study as the daily intake of 4 bottles of alcoholic drinks or more, has a wide range of social and health consequences for Nigerian students, who are the leaders of tomorrow. Alcohol misuse relates to students skipping class, failing examinations, quitting out owing to bad marks, and jeopardizing institutions’ and universities’ academic missions (Awoyinfa, 2012). Alcohol intake shortens colleges and universities’ academic vision and may jeopardize their goal of shaping future citizens. Heavy drinking (binge drinking) can have a negative impact on an institution’s overall academic performance. Alcohol consumption is a major public health issue because it has a negative impact on people’s health, social, psychological, and economic outcomes. Tertiary education presents students with unique challenges, and some students turn to alcohol to help them deal with their problems (Awoyinfa, 2012).
The majority of people with alcohol disorders are between the ages of 18 and 29, which is also the age range of the majority of university students. Indeed, heavy alcohol use among tertiary institution students has been well documented, and many students adopt heavy-drinking habits for the first time during their first year at university. A certain proportion of university students had drinking problems or had experienced drinking-related consequences, as well as an increased risk of heavy episodic drinking. Given that university study is a challenge for many students, academic performance is an important factor in student drinking (Adeyemo, 2007).
Academic achievement is used to measure success in educational institutions. As career competition in the workplace becomes more intense, the importance of students doing well in school has captured the attention of both parents and employers. Education is not the only path to success in the workplace; much effort is expended in schools to identify, evaluate, track, and encourage students’ progress. Parents are concerned about their child’s academic achievement because they believe that good grades will lead to more career opportunities and job security. Academic accomplishment, often known as (academic) performance, is the end result of schooling. Academic achievement is frequently assessed through tests or continuous assessment, but there is no widespread consensus on how it should be examined or whether components of procedural knowledge, such as skills, or declarative information, such as facts, are more significant. Gender, age, teaching faculty, students’ schooling, father/guardian social economic status, what they consume, students’ residential area, medium of instruction in schools, tuition trend, daily study hour, and accommodation as hostelries or day scholars all have an impact on students’ academic gain and learning performance.
Alcohol usage has a negative impact on some students and families by increasing the likelihood of dropouts and failing classes. On the other hand, some students understand how to mix their academic work with their social lives without negatively impacting their academic achievement (Odejide, & Ohaeri, 1994).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
(Adeyemo, 2007) observed that University administrators and officials are concerned about the link between problematic alcohol intake and poor academic achievement. Alcohol use has been linked to poor academic performance, and heavy drinking has been considered as a possible contributor to student dropout. Among the issues that university students typically face as a result of drinking are missing courses and poor academic performance. Heavy episodic drinkers are significantly more likely than non-heavy drinkers to claim that their drinking led them to miss class, get behind in their homework, and do poorly on tests or other academic projects.
Students who drink heavily can have positive blood alcohol levels the next day, affecting whether or not they get up for class and, if they do, the quality of how information is processed and eventually stored. Sleeping off after a buzz is a popular practice; however, it might disrupt the sleep cycle, resulting in an increase in anxiety, jumpiness, and irritability the next day, as well as exhaustion the next day. Although most people assume that alcohol hinders recall of events that occur when intoxicated, alcohol consumption has far-reaching consequences for memory and learning ability. In some circumstances, there is a strong correlation between problem drinking and academic achievement. Drinking can have an impact on young people’s biological development as well as their academic achievement and conduct. Severe alcohol usage among adolescents has serious neurological repercussions (Odejide, & Ohaeri, 1994).
Alcohol misuse has physiological and psychological impacts on students, as it impairs their performance by affecting their cognitive abilities, which are affected by even tiny doses of alcohol and can last for a long time after the acute symptoms of alcohol impairment have faded. Alcohol, for example, may impair memory by decreasing the transmission and synchronization of information, as well as reducing students’ capacity to remember material gained before to going out for drinks (Presley et al., 1996).
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The primary aim of this study is to assess the Extent Of Intake Of Alcohol On Students’ Academic Achievement In Tertiary Institutions In Nigeria. Other objectives of this study are:
- To determine the relationship between alcohol intake and academic achievement
- To determine the factors that cause alcohol intake in students of tertiary institutions.
- To examine the effect of excessive alcohol intake on academic achievement of students in tertiary institutions.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will guide this research.
- What is the relationship between alcohol intake and academic achievement?
- What are the factors that cause alchol intake in students of tertiary institutions?
- What are the effect of excessive alcohol intake on academic achievement of students in tertiary institutions?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to University administrators as the findings of the study will show the effects of alcohol intake on students academic achievement and thus will put effective policies in place to combat this scourge. This study will also be beneficial to students as the effects of excessive alcohol intake will be shown.
Finally, this study will be significant to scholars as it will serve as an existing material for further research and further reference.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study will be focused on the Extent Of Intake Of Alcohol On Students’ Academic Achievement In Tertiary Institutions In Nigeria. It will further look at the causes of alcohol intake in students of tertiary institutions and the effects it has on academic achievement. Students of the University of Jos, Plateau State serve as enrolled participants of this study.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
This study is limited to the Extent Of Intake Of Alcohol On Students’ Academic Achievement In Tertiary Institutions In Nigeria, it will look at the causes and effects of alcohol on students academic achievement. It will not be looking at the challenges and thus will not be proffering solutions.
This study is limited to the University of Jos and as such the findings of this study cannot be used anywhere else until firther research is carried out.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Extent: the area covered by something
A colourless volatile flammable liquid which is produced by the natural fermentation of sugars and is the intoxicating constituent of wine, beer, spirits, and other drinks, and is also used as an industrial solvent and as fuel.
Describes academic outcomes that indicate the extent to which a student has achieved their learning goals.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Are tertiary education students more likely to drink alcohol?
The results of this study are broadly in keeping with both Australian and international studies suggesting that tertiary education students, particularly males, have relatively high levels of risky alcohol consumption.
How does alcohol use affect academic performance?
They concluded that students who drink more alcohol maintain poor sleep patterns, which negatively affects academic performance. Aertgeerts and Buntinx (2002) examined the relationship of alcohol abuse among first-year students and their academic performance.
What is the relationship between drinking and academic demands?
Butler et al. (2011) examined the relationship between drinking and academic demands. “National surveys indicate that 40% of college students binge drink regularly, and the rate of binge drinking appears to be increasing”. The results of this study suggest that students drank 38% less when they had an exam or paper due the next day.
Does alcohol consumption inhibit high school students’ learning?
Despite a growing literature in this area, no study has convincingly answered the question of whether alcohol consumption inhibits high school students’ learning. Alcohol consumption could be an important determinant of how much a high school student learns without having a strong impact on his or her decision to stay in school or attend college.