Extent Of Use Of Instructional Materials In Teaching And Learning Of Accounting In Junior Secondary Schools

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Extent Of Use Of Instructional Materials In Teaching And Learning Of Accounting In Junior Secondary Schools


Abstract


Instructional materials this study was undertaken to ascertain the extent of use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Accounting education in Enugu North Local Government Area in Enugu State. Three research questions and one hypothesis were used as guide. This study adopted a descriptive survey design. it was carried out in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State. The population of the study was all the junior secondary school students and teachers in the field of Accounting education. Out of 14 secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area, 6 schools were randomly selected, picking 30 students and 4 teachers from each school which gave us a total of 180 students and 20 teachers. structured questionnaire was used for collection of data which was constructed in accordance with the research questions. The data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and chi-square statistics.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In teaching, it is highly desirable to know exactly what one aims to achieve as it is in all great undertaking. Instructional materials according to Wiki (1998), are kind of tools or equipment that can help the instructor effectively in theory teaching classroom or in practical assessment. They are also materials that aid in the transference of information from one to another. Also Ilori (2000) pin-pointed that instructional material are aids the teacher uses to arouse the interest of the learner there by enabling the learner to gain direct experience. Instructional materials are assumed to have being in place right from the primary school level but if not properly utilized, enhancement of learning is thwarted. The neglect of the use of instructional materials by teachers pose negative effect in the process of teaching and learning of Accounting education. Merrrel (1993) (p.37) pointed out that at present, schools are continually faced with financial problem and this could increase the likelihood that teachers will make more use of free or cheap teaching materials to supplement their own ageing resources. It is therefore important that teachers remain vigilant and exercise sound judgment on approaching what is available to help them teach and their pupils to learn.

The extent to which instructional materials are made available also determines the extent to which they are being utilized in teaching and learning of Accounting education. Onwuka (1981) indicated that instructional materials help the teacher to convey the intended message effectively and meaningfully to the learners so that the learner receive, understand, retain and apply the experience gained to reach an educational goal.

Instructional materials are some of the most important devices which both teachers and learners can use to enhance the quality of instruction. They are good sources of acquiring factual information and help to make learning permanent. Man is naturally endowed with five senses: smell, touch, sight, hearing and taste. learning or change in behavior is through these senses. In effect, these senses should come into play for effective learning. In the classroom the teacher therefore, must sensitize the sense of the learner through the use of instructional materials.

The various topics in junior secondary schools in Accounting education demand the use of instructional materials by the teacher from the preparation and delivery of their lessons to student. Instructional materials include all terms of information carriers that can be used to promote and encourage effective teaching and learning activities. They could be in form of text book, reference books, journals, posters, chart, programmed text, non-print materials, such as films, tapes, models, picture ,recorders etc. furthermore instructional materials are anything the teacher turns for help in his goal-seeking activities. The help may be in form of information, idea, formulae, generalization or experiences (Saylor and Alexander (1966).instructional materials

Tremendous changes have taken place in the development of science and technology. Therefore the Enugu state ministry of education and the school boards are supposed to provide junior secondary school pupils with funds for the procurement of instructional materials likewise, the teacher should use the available materials in his everyday teaching learning process, bearing in mind that the interest of children will be aroused more when they see things in their natural setting and the educational goal will be achieved as well.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The extent of use of instructional materials should not be excluded in teaching and learning of Accounting education. They supply a concrete basis for conceptual thinking and hence reduce meaningless word responses of students. It was observed that the result of student in Accounting education at junior secondary school certificate examinations (JSSCE) are consistently poor. Some of the causes of this poor achievement is related to lack of understanding of the concepts. Also the populations of students in continuation of science subjects in senior secondary schools are drastically reduced. One would ask, are there no knowledgeable teachers who can impact the knowledge of the concepts effectively. For a teacher to be effective in her work, she must know the principles of teaching which also include the use of instructional materials. Teachers have neglected the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Accounting education. They engage themselves with chalk and talk method which lives the student with little or no understanding.

This study therefore, tries to determine the extent of utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Accounting education in junior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area Enugu State.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this research is to find out the extent of utilization of instructional material in teaching and learning of instructional Accounting education in junior secondary school in Enugu North Local Government Area, Enugu State. In the light of this, the specific objectives of the research include:.

  1. To ascertain the extent to which these instructional material are being utilized in teaching and learning of accounting education in junior secondary schools in Enugu North L.G.A Enugu state.
    2. To ascertain the factors affecting utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of accounting education
  2. To find out the possible solutions or strategies through which the use of instructional materials in teaching of accounting education can be increased instructional materials

1.4 Significance of the Study

It is intended that findings from this research on the interest of use of instructional material will be of help to both the student, teachers, school and the government.

  1. It exposes the importance of instructional materials which would make students have more understanding on the lessons.
  2. The information from this research will help teacher to carry out their task with ease unlike the chalk and talk method where the teacher spend the whole time trying to make the student to understand what is being taught.
  3. The information from this research will enable the school administrators to ascertain the availability of instructional materials for teaching Accounting education and the extent to which they are being utilized in promoting the new emphases on teaching Accounting education in junior secondary schools in Enugu North L.G.A Enugu State
  4. The information from the research will also help the bodies, whose duty is to lay educational policies and monitor the progress of the planned educational evolution to ensure that instructional materials are supplied and bottle necks removed in time to facilitate the effective implementation of this National policy on education with reference to teaching of Accounting education.

1.5 Research Question

This study seeks to provide answers to the following

  1. To what extent are these instructional material being fully utilized in teaching and learning of Accounting education in junior secondary in Enugu North L.G.A
  2. What are the factors affecting the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Accounting education in junior secondary school in Enugu North L.G.A
  3. What are the possible solution or strategies by which the use of instructional materials can be fully increased.

1.6 Hypothesis

H0: There is no significant difference between the achievement students taught with instructional material and those not taught with instructional materials

H1: There is a significant difference between the achievement students taught with instructional material and those not taught with instructional materials

H0: There is no factors affecting utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of accounting education

H2: There are factors affecting utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of accounting education


1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

Because of the large size of population of student in junior secondary sector in Enugu state, the study is narrowed to the case study of junior secondary sector in Enugu North Local Government Area in Enugu State. The researcher encountered some constrain in the cause of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Finance:

The finances at the disposal of the researcher was very limited, as such adversely affect the scope of the studies as more schools could not be integrated into the study.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Instructional Material:

Instructional materials are the tools used in educational lessons, which includes active learning and assessment. Basically, any resource a teacher uses to help him teach his students is an instructional material

Effective:

Successful in producing a desired or intended result.

Teaching:

Perhaps the most significant difference between primary school and secondary school teaching is the relationship between teachers and children. In primary schools each class has a teacher who stays with them for most of the week and will teach them the whole curriculum.

Learning:

Learning is the act of acquiring new or modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences which may lead to a potential.

Business Education:

Business education involves teaching students the fundamentals, theories, and processes of business. Education in this field occurs at several levels, including secondary education and higher education or university education.

Junior Secondary School:

Education in Nigeria is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Local authorities take … Students spend six years in Secondary School that is 3 years of JSS (Junior Secondary School), and 3 years of SSS (Senior Secondary School).


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the extent of the use of instructional materials for teaching and learning of accounting in junior secondary schools.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of availability of instructional material for the effective teaching and learning of accounting in secondary schools.


5.2 Summary

Instructional materials affect the student understanding and perception of teaching of business education in Nigeria. In the light of this, the use of computer-based instructional programmes tend to improve achievement scores of students as compare to the use of traditional or regular methods of instruction. Kiboss (2002), Kiboss and Ogunniyi (2003), Njoo and De Jong (1993) Tanui (2003), Wenglrnsky (1998). Teaching of book keeping and accounts are done more on theoretical bases instead of both theoretical and practical since the use of their functional office equipment are practical based courses. Like computer, shorthand, typewriting even accounting where students are expected to make use of computers, adding machines, embossing machines, cheque writing machines, photo copying machines etc


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings made, it was concluded that availability of instructional materials, teacher’s utilization, challenges and strategies are some assessment of utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business studies subject in secondary schools in Nigeria. Therefore, business education teachers should be conversant with different instructional materials and strategies. The variety of instructional materials and strategies available for utilization by business study teachers are therefore the major ingredient for teaching effectiveness.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings of the study, the researcher wish to offer the following recommendations:

Seminars and workshops should be organized for teachers on the availability and management of materials in schools ß Teachers need to update their skills in the area of modern technology to enable them discharge their duties effectively.

Availabilities and utilizations should be a separate course in the teachers training programme or subject trade in vocational and technical schools.

Government and school administrators should provide qualitative and sufficient male teachers
Teachers who desire to increase the knowledge and skills should be encouraged.


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