Extent Of The Use Of Instructional Materials In The Effective Teaching And Learning Of Home Economics

Project and Seminar Material for Home Economics

Extent Of The Use Of Instructional Materials In The Effective Teaching And Learning Of Home Economics


Abstract


Domestic Waste Disposal investigated the extent of the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home Economics. The study aimed at determining the extent of the use of instructional materials or reportage of the problems associated with the use of instructional materials and the government effort on the use of instructional materials.

The project work consisted of five major chapters starting with the introduction which covered the introduction, statement of problems, objective of study, research question, hypotheses etc. Relevant literature consisting of meaning, classification, functions and availability of instructional materials.

Analysis of data with the help on descriptive and inferential statistical tools showed that instructional materials are not required and not well taken care of. However, when these materials go bad, they are either dumped, discarded, or managed the way it is. The researchers therefore recommend that a more provision of adequate funds for acquisition and maintenance of instructional materials for teaching and learning of Home Economics and that government should pay more attention to the need for relevant instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of Home Economics. It also recommended that in-house training, seminar and workshop on the use of instruction materials should be frequently organized by governments or schools to promote the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning.


Table of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Review of concepts
  • 2.2 Review of related literature
  • 2.3 Review of Empirical studies
  • 2.4 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.5 Chapter Summary

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the study
  • 3.3 Sample size determination
  • 3.4 Sample size selection technique and procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of data collection
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis
  • 3.8 Validity and Reliability of the study

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.3 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The term Home Economics means home training or skill training. It takes one on welfare of himself and other families. It has been in existent hence mothers train their girls on how to cook and do other work at home artworks, also mothers train their daughter on how to keep houses clean, hair plaiting, decorating home with local paints, body painting, dressing during moon light and festivals also how to make up in other to marry comfortably, while fathers train their son on how to farm and make crafts like baskets and carving art works. As time goes on, it was introduced as domestic studying schools, later to domestic science.

On arrival of the white men called missionaries to Nigeria. Though there were no formal schools, they introduced it to be called Home economics, no more domestic science. Since their arrival they introduced it as formal education. It becomes more than cooking and craft making. And extended into sewing, home management, clothing and textile, and within a short time Nigeria introduced it to primary schools, junior and senior secondary level and today into higher institutions. Today, both sex study home economics because it offer job opportunity. Obiakor (2006) stated that through this philosophy, “home has become the most influential and sweetest of all human institution and organization in shipping the destiny of man. Anyakoha (2010) stated that Home Economics is a method of finding out the need of individual families and finding way of meeting the needs of individuals and families, improving the goods and services which families use, prepare people for family living and prepare people for employment.

To enhance an effective teaching and learning of Home Economics, teachers should apply the desirable methodology in teaching Home Economics especially the use of instructional materials, just as Ezeugwu (2009) noted that no subject area which does not make use of instructional materials. These materials enhance learning concepts and events in less time than mere verbalization by involving all the senses. Obanya (1989) view instructional materials as a didactic materials – things which is supposed to make teaching and learning possible.


1.2 Statement of Problem

A close look at schools around its today goes to prove a popular opinion or view that the majority of teachers do not use instructional materials effectively for teaching and learning of Home Economics. Tahir (2002) admitted that there is a general lack of instructional materials. Ekpo (2004) aptly declared that instructional materials are often used to compensate for the inadequacies of sense organ or to reinforce the capacity of the dominant organs. They must be relevance for the realization of the intensive of curriculum.

Thus there is a short fall in the availability of instructional materials and teachers are unable to improvise with what is available in our environment in other to effectively derive home the lesson thought. Therefore, the inadequacies of sense organs are not compensated. Oforah (2009) state that the outcome of committee of STAN were pupils textbooks, teachers guides etc while Tauari (1998) states that the commission for now can only supply exercise books, chalks and such minor things. Instructional materials are grossly inadequate for effective teaching and learning.

Furthermore, Tyler (1950) in his opinion explained that Home Economics Department should have a well organized instructional material corner, units or room where some of the following could be found. Verbal symbols (oral or written), recordings, visual symbols for stimulating interest, realia the real thing or authentic materials Dale (1959), Television, it made educational experiences which are beyond the reach of the classroom available to the students.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study are to:

  1. Determine the extent of the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home Economics.
  2. Identify the problems associated with the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Home Economics.
  3. Enlighten people on the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home Economics.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study will be of significance to the following:

  1. It will serve as a reference point on the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Home Economics.
  2. The study will bring awareness to the government curriculum planners and other stakeholders in the area on the necessity in provision of adequate instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of Home Economics.
  3. It will make educational experience which are beyond the reach of classroom available to student of Home Economics.
  4. It will provide a guide to the appropriate use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home Economics.
  5. The study will also create awareness on the benefit of the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home Economics.

1.5 Research Questions

  1. To what extent is the use of instructional materials effective for teaching and learning of Home Economics?
  2. What are the problems that are associated with the use of instructional materials in the effective teaching and learning of Home Economics?
  3. How much awareness is being created for the people on the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home Economics?

1.6 Scope of the Study

Few selected schools in Awgu Local Government area were studied. This will be made up of combination of government owned schools. The names of the government owned schools includes: C.S.S. Mmaku, Rosary High School Awgu and Boys Secondary School Awgu. While the private owned schools includes: Presentation secondary school Awgu and Alpha secondary school Awgu. This scope of study are selected/chosen so as to help solve financial limitation/problems.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Conceptual And Operational Definition
Instructional Materials

Conceptual – Teaching aids which can also be referred to as instructional aids, teaching materials which appeal to all sense and felling and aid learning.

Operational – Course of study, syllabus, curriculum, bulletins, guides, handbooks, research reports, audio visual aids and other materials which serve as a teacher’s educational function.

Home Economics

Conceptual – An interdisciplinary field of study which help families and individuals to understand and adopt to the social economics, culture and technological changes.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This section presents the summary of the study, conclusion and the recommendations of the study.


5.2 Summary

The objective of the study was to examine the extent of the use of instructional materials in the effective teaching and learning of home economics. The researcher reviewed related literatures on the role of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of home economics and established that there was limited research on the same locality. The limited research on this motivated the researcher to carry out this study.

The study used cross sectional survey design since the area under the study has been extended and the entire population could not be covered on individual basis. The survey design employed enabled the researcher to be able to generalize the characteristics of the entire population because of its sample. The target population included District Education Officer, Head of Schools, Teachers and Students in Agwu Local Government Area in Enugu State.
The study used both probability and non-probability sampling methods. The probability sampling was used to select students and teachers in selected schools where simple random sampling was used. Convenient non probability sampling was used to select the District education officer as well as the Heads of Schools because they were the only representatives basing on their status.

The instruments which were used to collect data in this study included questionnaires and interview. Questionnaires were used to collect data from students and teachers while interview was used to collect data from District Education Officer and Heads of Schools. The collected data were coded and the analysed and the results were presented in condensed form in terms of tables and figures.

The findings for the research questions of this study are as follows:

The first objective of this study was to explore the extent to which instructional materials makes teaching and learning home economics effective. The findings revealed that teachers consider instructional materials as key to effective teaching and learning. This implies that the Schools with inadequacy of instructional materials and instructors are likely to have ineffective teaching and learning where as schools with adequate instructional materials and instructors are likely to have effective teaching and learning.


5.3 Conclusion

From the study findings it is apparent that many schools in the study area do not use appropriate instructional materials. They do not have instructional materials that the schools need to buy, nor do they improvise their own. Although all the teachers agree that instructional materials are important in contributing to effective teaching and learning home economics, they do not show a need to have these materials in their classrooms.

This implies that, although the teachers have the knowledge about the importance of instructional materials, they are not inclined to develop them. This may have many reasons. One could guess that teachers do not care whether the students perform or not, and this from the management point of view, may emanate from low morale and motivation towards their teaching. Another explanation may be, poor supervision from their heads of schools. Normally, heads of schools are supposed to be instructional supervisors, to ensure that instructions are going on and students are provided with quality education coupled with quality instructional resources. Lack of supervision may be the reason for the situation found by this study.


5.4 Recommendations

Basing on the findings from this study the following are the recommendations;

The government should strive and set aside a reasonable amount of education budget which will be directed to improve and construct libraries in schools like what it did to promote laboratories in schools. The heads of schools should rise their voice to be heard by parents as well as the government on the importance of improving and promoting good instructional materials in schools and that success or failure of a student will not only depend on the content that the students receive in class as well as access to materials for further review by his or her own.

The parents should not sit down and wait for the government to effect on the availability of libraries and other valid learning materials and facilities in schools. The parents should consider the problems of lacking facilities as a challenge that needs to be redressed by them. So the study urges parents to effectively participate physically and financially where possible for the development of the schools.


Extent Of The Use Of Instructional Materials In The Effective Teaching And Learning Of Home Economics


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Extent Of The Use Of Instructional Materials In The Effective Teaching And Learning Of Home Economics


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