Extent Use Of Instructional Material In Teaching And Learning Of Technical Education In Junior Secondary School

Project and Seminar Material for Vocational Education

Extent Use Of Instructional Material In Teaching And Learning Of Technical Education In Junior Secondary School


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the extent of the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary schools using some selected secondary schools in Enugu North as a case study. The study was carried out to ascertain whether there is an adequate availability of instructional materials in teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary schools in Enugu North; Determine the extent the use of instructional materials encourages active participation of pupils during the teaching and learning of technical education; Determine the extent the use of instructional materials enhances students learning outcome and academic performance in technical education in junior secondary school in Enugu North; and Identify the problems militating against the use of instructional material in teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary school in Enugu North. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of technical education teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Enugu North. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypothesis were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is no adequate availability of instructional materials in teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary schools in Enugu North. The study also revealed that the extent of the use of instructional materials enhances students learning outcome and academic performance in technical education in junior secondary school in Enugu North. Therefore, it is recommended that teaching aids are part of teachers’ instructional design and strategy. So, teachers should always make effort to integrate instructional materials in their teaching. If not available, teachers should improvise the teaching materials. When this is properly done, it will boost students’ retention ability and increase their performance on both internal and external examinations. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

Instructional materials are variety of materials in various formats which influence student’s learning and instructors teaching which have evolved in recent years to include computer and VCR play /recorder technology, text books, pictures, transparencies, films, computer software, CDROMS, and electronic resources.

Varrella (2001) stated that several available instructional materials will serve their purposes if effectively accessed and effectively used. Instructional materials enhance effective and appropriate developmental experience quality of instruction, instructional methods and techniques. Viles in Ugama (2000) on his own part define instructional materials as the release of human potentials that make available a more competent teacher to conduct the human interaction that education. For effective education to be ensured, there could be taken to mean all efforts of designated school officials direct towards providing good leadership to teachers and other educational workers or educationalist in the improvement of instructional materials. instructional materials involves stimulation of professional growth development of students and teachers, the selection and revision of educational objectives the instructional materials and methods of teaching and learning. However in recent times, as a result of some economic set backs and non-commitment by some teachers use of lecture method are mostly vogue which goes to negate the expected result.

Instructional materials are the necessary materials that will aid and facilitate learning. These materials include charts, models, specimens, graphics, chemicals, monitor, keyboard, mouse, central processing unit. These can motivate students and serve as effective ways to explain and illustrate subject content. The instructional materials are needed in schools in order to improve teachers effectiveness ensure that teachers are performing their duties as expected. It is also targeted at the improvement of incompetent teachers and provision of guide for staff development. It aid in the determination of effectiveness of the teachers classroom management and determination of special abilities possessed by teachers.
Instructional materials are selected based on the principles of provision of accurate, well-written materials that will enrich and support the adopted curriculum, taking into consideration varied interests, abilities and maturity levels of the students served, provision of materials that will stimulate growth in factual and ethical standards. Provide a background of information that will enable students to make intelligent judgments in their daily lives.

In junior secondary schools, one observed uprightly abandonment of classroom by teachers for the market places or other business. This has given rise to the emergence of teacher-turned business people who hawk wares ranging from food items through shoes and bags of various designs during office hours. And as a result the time left for teaching will be reduced and there will be no enough time for the use of teaching aids in teaching.

Furthermore, apathy on the side of school authority and teachers had even gone to create a situation where even available instructional materials are not used in demonstration during teaching and learning in many schools today. For instance, in teaching of computer, learners are allowed to see the hard and soft wares without using them. In some cases, such instructional materials are not even displayed to the learners.

At school administrative level, the principal charged with the internal supervision of teachers leave much to be desired in terms of their responsibilities. Some of them lack the necessary human relation for effective leadership of subordinates. Such school leads often jettison the guidelines for materials issued by the relevant authorities in preference for methods guided by their personal interest than laid down specifications.

Government that is at the apex of co-ordination especially the relevant authorities does not help matters. Principals and teachers as well make up deficiencies in their school by way of borrowing apparatus to be returned to their original owners after supervisors has come and gone.

Instructional materials are indispensable tools in teaching and learning of technical education. Therefore, as a result of the on going, there is need to look at the extent use of instructional material in teaching and learning of technical education in Enugu North.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The urge to embark on this research work was stimulated by the short comings in terms of academic standards in most of our educational institution especially in junior secondary schools.

The students would not have the opportunity to manipulate the requires equipments necessary for the subject, thereby making them not to be conversant with the materials. Lack of instructional materials leads to poor performance in examination and inability of the student to handle any instructional materials at his or her disposal after secondary school. The study therefore wish to address the extent use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of technical education in Junior secondary school in Enugu North. Taking cognizance of the associated problems of teaching and learning.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of the research work is to examine the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary schools. Other specific objectives of the study include:

  1. Ascertain whether there is an adequate availability of instructional materials in teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary schools in Enugu North.
  2. Determine the extent the use of instructional materials encourages active participation of pupils during the teaching and learning of technical education.
  3. Determine the extent the use of instructional materials enhances students learning outcome and academic performance in technical education in junior secondary school in Enugu North.
  4. Identify the problems militating against the use of instructional material in teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary school in Enugu North.

1.4 Research Questions

The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:

  1. Are there adequate instructional materials in teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary schools in Enugu North?
  2. To what extent does the use of instructional materials encourage active participation of pupils during the teaching and learning of technical education?
  3. To what extent does the use of instructional materials enhance students learning outcome and academic performance in technical education in junior secondary school in Enugu North?
  4. What are the problems militating against the use of instructional material in teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary school in Enugu North?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The use of instructional materials does not enhance students learning outcome and academic performance in technical education in junior secondary school.
  • Ha: The use of instructional materials enhances students learning outcome and academic performance in technical education in junior secondary school.

1.6 Significance of Study

The study on the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary schools will be of immense benefit to the entire Enugu state and other researchers that wishes to carryout similar research on the research topic as it will discuss the effect of the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary schools.


1.7 Scope of Study

This study focuses on the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning technical education in Enugu north local government. The study shall cover only junior secondary school in Enugu north local government.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work


1.9 Definition of Terms

Technical Education:

Involves teaching students the fundamentals, theories, and processes of business

Instructional Materials:

Refer to the human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improved and promote teaching and learning activities.

Academic Performance:

Academic performance or achievement is the outcome of education, that is, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the extent of the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary schools using some selected secondary schools in Enugu North as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the extent of the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary schools using some selected secondary schools in Enugu North as a case study. The study is was specifically set to ascertain whether there is an adequate availability of instructional materials in teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary schools in Enugu North; Determine the extent the use of instructional materials encourages active participation of pupils during the teaching and learning of technical education; Determine the extent the use of instructional materials enhances students learning outcome and academic performance in technical education in junior secondary school in Enugu North; and Identify the problems militating against the use of instructional material in teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary school in Enugu North.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are technical education teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Enugu North.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is no adequate availability of instructional materials in teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary schools in Enugu North
  2. The extent of the use of instructional materials encourages active participation of pupils during the teaching and learning of technical education
  3. The extent of the use of instructional materials enhances students learning outcome and academic performance in technical education in junior secondary school in Enugu North.
  4. The problems militating against the use of instructional material in teaching and learning of technical education in junior secondary school in Enugu North includes; inadequate availability of instructional materials, lack of adequate finance, lack of skill required for the use of instructional material by the teachers, and overcrowding of classrooms.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Teaching aids are part of teachers’ instructional design and strategy. So, teachers should always make effort to integrate instructional materials in their teaching. If not available, teachers should improvise the teaching materials. When this is properly done, it will boost students’ retention ability and increase their performance on both internal and external examinations.
  2. The government should strive and set aside a reasonable amount of education budget which will be directed to improve and construct libraries and provide instructional materials in schools.
  3. More seminars/workshops on the use of diverse instructional materials available should be organized at least bi-annually to acquaint teachers on how to use them in teaching a secondary school subject.
  4. The heads of schools should rise their voice to be heard by parents as well as the government on the importance of improving and promoting good instructional materials in schools since the success or failure of a student will not only depend on the qualification of the teacher.

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