Extent Of The Use Of Instructional Materials In Teaching And Learning Of Integrated Science And Computer Science In Junior Secondary School
This study tends to ascertain the extent of use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer in Enugu North Local Government Area in Enugu State. Three research questions were used as guide. This study adopted a descriptive survey design, which was carried out in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State. The population of the study was all the junior secondary school students and teachers in the field of integrated science and computer. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The interpretation of the data was based on real limit number of mean score. Based on the data analyzed the following major findings were made. 1. Adequate instructional materials needed for effective teaching and learning of integrated science and computer were not available. 2. Only the teacher made instructional materials were being used. 3. Available instructional materials were not fully utilized. 4. Insufficient materials and equipment is a major factor affecting utilization of instructional materials. 5. Another factor affecting utilization of instruction materials is lack of fund for the purchase of the instructional materials.
1.1 Background of the Study
In teaching, it is highly desirable to know exactly what one aims to achieve as it is in all great undertaking. Instructional materials according to Wiki (1998), are kind of tools or equipment that can help the instructor effectively in theory teaching classroom or in practical assessment. They are also materials that aid in the transference of information from one to another. Also Ilori (2000) pin-pointed that instructional material are aids the teacher uses to arouse the interest of the learner there by enabling the learner to gain direct experience. Instructional materials are assumed to have being in place right from the primary school level but if not properly utilized, enhancement of learning is thwarted. The neglect of the use of instructional materials by teachers pose negative effect in the process of teaching and learning of integrated science and computer. Merrrel (1993) (p.37) pointed out that at present, schools are continually faced with financial problem and this could increase the likelihood that teachers will make more use of free or cheap teaching materials to supplement their own ageing resources. It is therefore important that teachers remain vigilant and exercise sound judgment on approaching what is available to help them teach and their pupils to learn.
The extent to which instructional materials are made available also determines the extent to which they are being utilized in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer. Onwuka (1981) indicated that instructional materials help the teacher to convey the intended message effectively and meaningfully to the learners so that the learner receive, understand, retain and apply the experience gained to reach an educational goal.
Instructional materials are some of the most important devices which both teachers and learners can use to enhance the quality of instruction. They are good sources of acquiring factual information and help to make learning permanent. Man is naturally endowed with five senses: smell, touch, sight, hearing and taste. Learning or change in behavior is through these senses. In effect, these senses should come into play for effective learning. In the classroom the teacher therefore, must sensitize the sense of the learner through the use of instructional materials.
The various topics in junior secondary schools in integrated science and computer demand the use of instructional materials by the teacher from the preparation and delivery of their lessons to student. Instructional materials include all terms of information carriers that can be used to promote and encourage effective teaching and learning activities. They could be in form of text book, reference books, journals, posters, chart, programmed text, non-print materials, such as films, tapes, models, picture ,recorders etc. furthermore instructional materials are anything the teacher turns for help in his goal-seeking activities. The help may be in form of information, idea, formulae, generalization or experiences (Saylor and Alexander (1966).
Tremendous changes have taken place in the development of science and technology. Therefore the Enugu state ministry of education and the school boards are supposed to provide junior secondary school pupils with funds for the procurement of instructional materials likewise, the teacher should use the available materials in his everyday teaching learning process, bearing in mind that the interest of children will be aroused more when they see things in their natural setting and the educational goal will be achieved as well.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The extent of use of instructional materials should not be excluded in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer. They supply a concrete basis for conceptual thinking and hence reduce meaningless word responses of students. It was observed that the result of student in integrated science and computer education at junior secondary school certificate examinations (JSSCE) are consistently poor. Some of the causes of this poor achievement is related to lack of understanding of the concepts. Also the populations of students in continuation of science subjects in senior secondary schools are drastically reduced. One would ask, are there no knowledgeable teachers who can impact the knowledge of the concepts effectively. For a teacher to be effective in her work, she must know the principles of teaching which also include the use of instructional materials. Teachers have neglected the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer. They engage themselves with chalk and talk method which lives the student with little or no understanding.
This study therefore, tries to determine the extent of utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer in junior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area Enugu State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this research is to find out the extent of utilization of instructional material in teaching and learning of instructional science and computer in junior secondary school in Enugu North Local Government Area, Enugu State. In the light of this, the specific objectives of the research include:
- To ascertain the extent to which these instructional material are being utilized in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer in junior secondary schools in Enugu North L.G.A Enugu state.
- To ascertain the factors affecting utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer
- To find out the possible solutions or strategies through which the use of instructional materials in teaching of integrated science and computer can be increased.
1.4 Research Question
This study seeks to provide answers to the following
- To what extent are these instructional material being fully utilized in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer in junior secondary in Enugu North L.G.A?
- Are there factors affecting the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer in junior secondary school in Enugu North L.G.A?
- Are the possible solution or strategies by which the use of instructional materials can be fully increased
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is intended that findings from this research on the interest of use of instructional material will be of help to both the student, teachers, school and the government.
- It exposes the importance of instructional materials which would make students have more understanding on the lessons.
- The information from this research will help teacher to carry out their task with ease unlike the chalk and talk method where the teacher spend the whole time trying to make the student to understand what is being taught.
- The information from this research will enable the school administrators to ascertain the availability of instructional materials for teaching integrated science and computer and the extent to which they are being utilized in promoting the new emphases on teaching integrated science and computer in junior secondary schools in Enugu North L.G.A Enugu State
- The information from the research will also help the bodies, whose duty is to lay educational policies and monitor the progress of the planned educational evolution to ensure that instructional materials are supplied and bottle necks removed in time to facilitate the effective implementation of this National policy on education with reference to teaching of integrated science and computer.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
Because of the large size of population of student in junior secondary sector in Enugu state, the study is narrowed to the case study of junior secondary sector in Enugu North Local Government Area in Enugu State.
However, there were some constraints that tend to interrupt the flow of the study which include;
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Instructional materials are the tools used in educational lessons, which includes active learning and assessment. Basically, any resource a teacher uses to help him teach his students is aninstructional material.
A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences
Integrated Science is a revolutionary programme provided by many universities of the world. The programme is devoted to providing a wide range of knowledge in various fields of science. There are no exclusive rights for this programme, and every institution can provide its own explanation
Junior Secondary School:
A middle school is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and high school.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc.
- Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.
- Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary Conclusion and Recommendation
It is pertinent to note that this research was aimed at examining the level at which instructional materials are being used by teachers in teaching science and computer in junior secondary schools, thus the topic “extent of the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science in junior secondary school”.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges associated with the teaching and learning of integrated and computer science using instructional materials in Nigeria.
The aim of this research is to identify the extent of the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science in junior secondary schoolin some selected schools in Enugu State. The findings of this study showed that though there are teachers with B.Ed., B.Sc. and M.Sc. teaching these two subjects, but they do not possess enough knowledge and certification inComputerScience.
This study corroborates with the works by Onyeachi (2008), Ololube, Egbezor and Kpolovie (2007), Gwany (2006) and Lawal (2003). This may probably be the cause of poor performance in Integrated Science at the JSS level in the Delta Central Senatorial District.
The study sought to find out the teaching experiences of teachers teaching Integrated Science and Computer Science. The result showed that a majority of the teachers are inexperienced. Those with experience of 0-5 years were 26 in number representing 27.66% which was more than every other teaching experience possessed by the teachers. This again affirms the study by Ogunbowale (2003) that teacher’s preparation in terms of qualification, age and teaching experiences have great influence on teaching effectiveness. Also, the study corroborates with Easton-Brooks and Davis (2009) who assert that teachers of less than five years teaching experience cannot be as effective as teachers with more than ten years teaching experience.
The review of related literatures in the chapter two of this study showed that instructional materials used for teaching Integrated Science were not adequate. Teachers have enough texts and guide but other facilities such as measuring cylinder, test tubes and chemicals were lacking. The study affirms that lack of these materials can lead to poor performance in the subject by students. This study supports the works of Onyeachi (2008) and Maduabum (2009) who assert that lack of instructional materials can affect teaching effectiveness in school subjects.
The attainment of the goals of any subject is largely dependent on the quality of the teachers.
The researcher concludes that majority of teachers handling these two subjects are not professionally qualified to teach the subjects hence the low teaching effectiveness in the subjects. Integrated Science and Computer Scienceteachers have not acquired enough teaching experience that may enable them have enough mastery of the subject and hence the reduction in teaching effectiveness. The instructional materials meant for teaching Integrated Science and Computer Science are inadequate and thus affects the teaching effectiveness of the subject.
Therefore there should be quality Integrated Science and Computer Science teacher development. Opportunities to enrich teachers’ practices and competencies through in-service training, conferences, seminars and workshops should be provided on a regular basis to help them keep abreast with recent developments in the field of integrated science and broaden their knowledge of subject matter. There should be proper staffing of schools in terms of quality and quantity. Good practices for effective implementation of inquiry based science education must be identified and properly implemented. There should also be provision of modern teaching –learning resources in terms of quality and quantity as students need a variety of science materials to engage in inquiry-centered science learning. Libraries and laboratories should be provided and well equipped. The school administrators, managers, teachers, laboratory assistants, and students should develop good maintenance culture. If science is properly taught from the lower level, this will lay a sound foundation for science at higher levels.
- The Government as a matter of policy must ensure that only professionally qualified Integrated Science and Computer Science teachers should teach the subject for a better teaching effectiveness.
- Teachers should encourage their students to improvise local instructional materials in teaching and learning of Integrated Science and Computer Science. Also, the government must see to the provision of adequate instructional materials in schools
- The need for more workshops and seminars organized for Integrated Science and Computer Science teachers for them to update their knowledge and professional skills.
- More reference textbooks for teaching Integrated Science and Computer Science should be made available to update their knowledge both in content and skills.
- Inspectors of school should visit schools more often to monitor and to ensure more seriousness on the part of Integrated Science and Computer Science teachers for greater effectiveness in teaching.
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