Extent Of Use Of Computer Application By Science Teachers In Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science Education

Extent Of Use Of Computer Application By Science Teachers In Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out on the extent of use of computer application by science teachers in secondary schools using some selected secondary schools in Enugu metropolis, Enugu State as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of science teachers in the some selected secondary schools in Enugu metropolis, Enugu State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 39 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that science teachers uses computer applications in teaching. The study also revealed that the extent to which computer application is used by science teachers in secondary schools is high. Further findings showed that the challenges of using computer applications by science teachers in secondary schools consist of high cost of computer facilities maintenance, lack of technical know-how, inadequate funding, problem of accessibility, and lack of power supply and maintenance. Therefore, it is recommended that there is a serious need to raise the awareness to all stakeholders in secondary schools to enhance the use of the computer application for teaching of science related subjects in the schools. More advanced computers software should be provided to increase the level of access to computer applications among science teachers. Maintenance of computers should also be done more regularly to ensure that the available computers are always in good condition to facilitate teaching activities. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The rapid developments in technology have made tremendous changes in all aspects of life. For instance, people can pay tax easily, gather information from different countries instantly, even gain money or make payment without going to work/bank. Understanding the effects of new technologies on the workplace and everyday life, today‟s educational organizations try to redesign their programs and classroom activities in order to reduce the teaching and learning technology gap between today and the future. According to Tomei (2005), this process needs effective integration of technologies, especially computers into existing context to provide students with knowledge of subject areas, to develop active learning and to increase professional productivity.

Today computers are used in most courses to improve student learning. Computer technologies are becoming increasingly effective components of education (Papadouris & Constantinou, 2008). Researchers have shown the positive effects of the use of information and communications technology (ICT) on pupils‟ learning (Mumtaz, 2000).

Teachers perceived that immediate feedback to students and provision of alternative teaching techniques are the major advantages of computer-aided instruction (Wang & Chan, 1995). According to Azarmsa (1991), CST is the use of computer by the teachers in teaching as an interactive process which makes learning easier. Educators have begun to use computer supported teaching methods more often to increase the participation of students to the learning activities and to promote access to learning materials (Yaman, 2007).

Perhaps more than any other fields, science teaching has benefited from the developments of computer technology (Ogunkola, 2008). Clearly, the role of ICT in science education is significant. Where investigative science plays a central part, there are applications of ICT, which can both support „live‟ bench work and some, which can replace it, providing a virtual system to investigate using the same principles as in the laboratory (McFarlane & Sakellariou, 2002).

CST increases student achievement in science education more than traditional teaching methods do (Aiello & Wolfe, 1980; Akçay, Tüysüz, & Feyzioğlu, 2003; Bayraktar, 2002; Demircioğlu & Geban, 1996; Park, Khan, & Petrina, 2009). In addition, some studies revealed that computer supported science education positively affects students‟ attitudes toward science education (Akçay et al., 2003; Park et al., 2009; Schank, 1994; Yenice, 2003). CST in science education also increases the interest of the students and decreases teachers and students‟ time allocated for teaching and learning (YumuĢak & Aycan, 2002). Computer- assisted instruction has the potential to help lower achieving students in science classes and may increase enrolment rate in science lesson (Park et al., 2009). CST also increases conceptual understanding of students (Flick & Bell, 2000; Schank, 1994).

According to Redish and Steinberg (1999) “it is encouraging that we have found that interactive physics education and instructional strategies lead to better classroom results when compared to traditional instruction”. And also it was found that CST was more effective than traditional method on remediating students‟ misconceptions related to photosynthesis (Köse, Ayas, & TaĢ, 2003).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

A research organization in USA indicates that computer-based technology should be integrated into the context of science content and science education should take advantage of the unique features of computer technologies (National Research Council, 1996). So, research explicitly reports that science education and computer technology created a good cooperation over the 21 century (Flick & Bell, 2000).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad aim of this study is to examine the extent of use of computer application by science teachers in secondary schools.

Specifically, other aims of this study are:

  1. To determine whether science teachers use computer applications in teaching.
  2. To examine the extent computer application is used by science teachers in secondary schools.
  3. To examine the types of computer applications used by science teachers in secondary schools.
  4. To find out the challenges of using computer applications by science teachers in secondary schools.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. Do science teachers use computer applications in teaching?
  2. To what extent is computer application used by science teachers in secondary schools?
  3. What are the types of computer applications used by science teachers in secondary schools?
  4. What are the challenges of using computer applications by science teachers in secondary schools?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses will validate this study:

  • H01: Science teachers do not use computer applications in teaching.
  • H02: The extent of use of computer applications by science teachers in secondary schools is not high.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is hoped that the findings of this study will provide necessary information that will enhance computer applications and programs use by teachers in secondary schools.

Furthermore, the findings will also be relevant to the education sector and policy makers as the findings of this study will prompt the creation of effective policies that will incorporate the use of computer technologies by both students and teachers in secondary schools. Finally, the research will serve as a fuel of new reasoning and further research work on the extent of use of computer application by science teachers in secondary schools students, lecturers and the general public.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the extent of use of computer application by science teachers in secondary schools. Specifically, this study focuses on determining whether science teachers use computer applications in teaching, examining the extent computer application is used by science teachers in secondary schools, examining the types of computer applications used by science teachers in secondary schools and finding out the challenges of using computer applications by science teachers in secondary schools. The study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Enugu metropolis, Enugu State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Computer Applications:

An application program is a computer program designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typically to be used by end-users. Word processors, media players, and accounting software are examples of. The collective noun refers to all applications collectively.

Science Teachers:

Science teacher provides instruction and guidance to help students explore and understand important concepts in science, including problem-solving and how to gather evidence to support ideas or decisions. Science teachers create lesson plans, present science demonstrations, and grade tests and assignments.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the extent of use of computer application by science teachers in secondary schools using some selected secondary schools in Enugu metropolis, Enugu State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was onthe extent of use of computer application by science teachers in secondary schools using some selected secondary schools in Enugu metropolis, Enugu State as a case study.The study is was specifically set to determine whether science teachers use computer applications in teaching, examine the extent computer application is used by science teachers in secondary schools, examine the types of computer applications used by science teachers in secondary schools, and find out the challenges of using computer applications by science teachers in secondary schools.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent arescience teachers in the some selected secondary schools in Enugu metropolis, Enugu State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Science teachers uses computer applications in teaching.
  2. The extent to which computer application is used by science teachers in secondary schools is high.
  3. The types of computer applications used by science teachers in secondary schools include; presentation software, word processing software, publishing software, multimedia software, and educational software.
  4. The challenges of using computer applications by science teachers in secondary schools consist of high cost of computer facilities maintenance, lack of technical know-how, inadequate funding, problem of accessibility, and lack of power supply and maintenance.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. There is a serious need to raise the awareness to all stakeholders in secondary schools to enhance the use of the computer application for teaching of science related subjects in the schools.
  2. More advanced computers software should be provided to increase the level of access to computer applications among science teachers.
  3. Science teachers and students should be equipped with both internet basics and information literacy skills.
  4. Maintenance of computers should also be done more regularly to ensure that the available computers are always in good condition to facilitate teaching activities.
  5. Standby generators and Uninterrupted Power supply (UPSs) should be made available for the computer labs in schools to cater the need for reliable power supply.

Extent Of Use Of Computer Application By Science Teachers In Secondary Schools


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