The Extent Of Use Of Audio–Visual Materials In The Teaching And Learning Of English Language In Junior Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for English Language

The Extent Of Use Of Audio–Visual Materials In The Teaching And Learning Of English Language In Junior Secondary Schools


Abstract


The aim of this study is to find out the extent to which audio-visual materials are used in teaching the English Language in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The work will be divided into five chapters. Chapter one is the introduction; chapter two reviews the literative; chapter three is the methodology; chapter four is the analyses while chapter five is the summary, conclusion, recommendation and implication of the study. The study will be guided by four research questions. Survey design will be used. A portion of the entire population will serve as the sample size. The instrument of the study will be adopted to get the sample size.

The instrument of the study will be questionnaire. It will be face validated. A reliability exercise will be carried out whereby the questionnaire will be given to ten teachers from another local government Area for the first time; after two weeks they will be given the same questionnaire items to respond to. Their responses in the first and second times will be analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation co-efficient. Any result from 0.50 and above that is realized shows that the instrument is reliable. The research questions will be answered using mean scores. The analyses will be presented in tables and statements of inter-presentation will be made after each of the tables. Findings will be made. There will be recommendation and implications for the study. Finally, suggestions for further studies will be equally made.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study:

English is a language of the people of England. It originates from the Jute, Angles and Saxon, who are the early settlers in Britain. It is part of the Germanic branch of the Indo European language family. At the initial state, English was confined to Britain alone. Later, it grew wide within the British Empire as a Prestigious Core Language among all other European languages in the upper classes of London, Oxford, Wales, Ireland, Scotland, Cambridge and England. It further developed and got to other people of the world. It spread to Asia, Germany, Africa and other continents as a Native Language, Second Language or Foreign Language. Progressively, English Language has spread virtually all over the world.

English, throughout the world, is a significant everyday language. It is a global language and widely distributed medium of instruction and communication. It has a prestigious official status and has acquired a constitutionally endorsed legal right. It has gained explicit recognition, which has established it as a medium of administration, education, international relations, commerce and law. Throughout the world, English language is very important (Mac Arthur, 1996).

In Nigeria, English language is a second language and a lingua franca. This means that it is the language for unit, communication economy, national pride, law, press, trade and instruction. As a language of instruction, it is an essential prerequisite for an advancement and career succession in the country. It means a lot in the life and progress of a child as it is a key subject with profound influence on all the school subjects.

The English Language is used in the Junior Secondary Schools as core school subject. It is a solid foundational course. The key elements of the course are designed to cover the basic four language skills, which are listening, reading, speaking and writing. It is expected that after learning these skills in Junior Secondary School, the students who choose to work can use the language fluently while those who wish to go further can be very proficient in the language. According to Harold (1995), the teachers are to integrate the key elements of the language experiences at school. English at this stage tends to receive more critical attention. He posits that the professional English language teacher is one who has been trained or has trained himself to do a competent work. He should at least possess a college major in English or a strong minor. He must have deep interest in literature and a solid knowledge of the language skills. Moreover, he has to acquire strong skill in the handling of the instructional materials and educational problems. The emphasis here lies on training and qualification of the teachers.

The importance of instructional materials in teaching the English Language in Junior Secondary School cannot be under-estimated. It makes whatever amount of work being done at Junior Secondary School easy and fast. It promotes greater acquisition and high retention of actual knowledge. They provide increased interest and integrated experience (Eya and Ofoefuna, 1999)

Vikoo (2003) observes that the most suitable instructional materials for the effective teaching and learning of the English Language at this information age are audio – visual materials. He describes the audio – visual materials as the instructional system which uses the operations of the scientific and technological equipment combining both visual projections and sound productions to provide tangible experiences to learners. Some of such materials are computer assisted instruction, video – taped instruction and film shows. Baldeh (1990) states that audio – visual aids have been introduced, tested and tried in the school system and found effective.

In spite of the importance of the English Language and the effectiveness of the audio – visual aids in teaching English Language in Nigeria, the students’ performances are found low in the Junior Secondary Examination in Chief Examiner’s report (2006), it is stated that the students attainments in English Language have been dwindling every year while the enrolments of the candidates are astronomically increasing. Rowtree (1994) still, describes audio – visual aids as the most fitted materials to aid the teachers to inculcate the language competence in students. It uses electric method to enhance learning. Yet, the results of the students are found low.


1.2 Statement of the Problem:

English Language emerged from a common origin of the Germanic branch of indo European language family, and has far–reaching spread and uses in Nigeria, it is her lingua franca and a second language. It is the official language, which has gained it’s endorsed statutory legal position. It is the language of education and all other transactions in Nigeria. In effect, it is of paramount importance for all users of the language in the country; in education, all students of Junior Secondary School should gain competence in it.

In order to gain the required competence, audio – visual materials are specifically used in instructional activities to mitigate the instruction problems and improve knowledge of both teachers and students in relatively short time. Incidentally, the failure rate of the students is disturbing.

This poor performance may imply that the students have not grasped the basic language skills. Secondly, it suggests that the teachers may use it on a minimal level or may have ignored the use of the materials in their classroom practices. Thirdly, the training of the teachers may contribute to its success or failure in the students’ performances.

Again, there is controversy on gender differences. It is not certain whether female and male teachers react differently in the extent of use of audio – visual aids. The question here is, to what extent does the teachers use audio – visual materials in learning English Language in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu East Local Government Area? Finding an answer to this question is the major concern of this study.


1.3 Purpose of the Study:

The purpose of this research is to elicit from the English Language teachers the extent of use of audio – visual aids in teaching and learning English language in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu East Local Government Area. Specifically, the researchers intend to

  1. Determine the degree of the use of audio – visual aids in teaching the English Language.
  2. Find out the level of the use of audio – visual aids to improve the students’ performances in English Language.
  3. Examine whether the male and female differences affect the extent of use of the audio – visual aids in teaching and learning in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu East Local Government Area
  4. Ascertain whether the difference in the education of the teachers affect the extent of the use of the audio – visual aids in the teaching and learning of the English language in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu East Local Government Area?

In effect, there is no clear cut stand as there are generally varied opinions. This therefore, emphasizes the need for the study to be carried out.


1.4 Significance of the Study:

It is hoped that this study will inspire teachers and inspectors of the State and Federal Ministries of Education to improve their competence and performance by adopting instructional audio – visual materials to suit their proper use in the classroom. This will improve the teaching and learning of English language in particular and other subjects in general. This study also will help educational planners to lay more emphasis on teachers’ use of the audio – visual instructional materials when drawing up an English Language curriculum.

The Federal Ministry of Education and State Education Commission, when recommending text books for English Language, should ensure that text books should contain CD ROMS, films and tape recorded work of the same text books and that teachers should be made to have and use audio – visual materials such materials should be available for the teachers’ use in the classrooms. Finally, this study shows that each of the students has absolute control of his potentials and as such is capable of developing his potentials and attain high academic excellence commensurate with those potentials through the use of audio – visual ads.


1.5 Scope of Study:

This study was carried out in all the secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government Area. The study investigated the extent of usage of the audio – visual materials in Junior Secondary Schools. Some percentage of teachers and students was used.


1.6 Research Questions:

The following research questions addressed and guide the study

  1. To what extent do teachers make use of audio – visual material in teaching and learning English in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu east Local Government Area of Enugu State?
  2. To what extent does the use of audio – visual materials improve effective teaching and learning of English in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State?
  3. Do male and female differences of the teachers influence the extent of usage of the audio – visual aids in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State?
  4. Do differences in the qualifications of the teachers influence the extent of usage of the audio – visual aids in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State?

1.7 Research Hypotheses:

This study was guided by the following null hypotheses which were tested at 0.05 level of significance.

HO: There is no significance difference in the mean scores of male and female teachers in the use of the audio-visual in teaching English Language in Junior Secondary School in Enugu East Local Government Area.

HO: There are no significant differences between the mean scores of trained and untrained English Language teachers in the use of the audio-visual materials in teaching English Language in Junior Secondary School in Enugu East Local Government Area.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1. Introduction

This chapter presents the summary and conclusion of the results relating to the research questions postulated and hypotheses tested. It also gives general recommendations as to how the findings of the research can enhance academic achievement and make suggestions for further research.


5.2. Summary

The study investigated the effect of the use of audio-visual aids on student’s academic achievement in English Language in junior secondary schools. It focused on the influence of variables such as comprehension and demonstration and cooperation on academic achievement of students taught English Language using audio-visual aids. In the course of the work, three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

The data for the study was collected through achievement tests, interview and observation. On the whole four schools were purposively selected. schools from Enugu east Local Government Area of Enugu State. Forty (40) students were sampled from each school for the study. The method for data analysis in this study was descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, mean, standard deviation and simple percentage and inferential statistics such as Z-test and U-test. Generally, the result of the analysis showed that the use audio-visual aids have significant impact on students‟ academic achievement in English Language in junior secondary schools.


5.3. Conclusions

From the study conducted the use of audio-visual aids seemed to be an innovation and radical approach in teaching English Language because most of the English Language teachers in the schools have never used any audio-visual aids in their classes due to non availability of the materials where the materials are available the teachers lack the techniques in using them during teaching-learning processes. Lack or inadequate source of power is a great hindrance to effective use of these instructional materials in most of the schools.

It is evident from the study, that some of the teachers handle English Language were teachers of Geography, History, Economics or Government. Looking at the importance of the subject there some concepts or topics in the syllabus which those that are not experts cannot understand, not to talk of taking the pains in providing audio-visual aids. The way an expert in English Language presents a lesson is quite different from the way a geography teacher presents. Some students get confused or distorted and lack of knowledge of what were audio-visual aids as they have never seen any one before. However, what were commonly seen or known were chalk boards, text books, maps, pictures among others.

It was in view of this, that the study hoped to make certain recommendations and suggestions to remedy the situation, if English Language is to enjoy its status among the subjects in the curriculum, and if it is to enjoy the support and interest of the students.


5.4. Recommendations

In the light of the findings in this study, the following recommendations are made

  1. There is ardent need for government and state holders to provide audio-visual aids in the schools to facilitate teaching-learning process.
  2. There is compelling need to secure a stable source of power in the schools to ensure sustainable use the instructional materials particularly audio-visual aids. iii) The school‟s management and parent‟s teacher‟s association (PTA) should look into the possibility of repairing broken down instructional materials (audiovisual aids) in the schools with a view to reactivate them.
  3. There is the need to review the NCE curriculum for English Language to incorporate a course that entails techniques of operating audio-visual aids so as to train prospective English Language teachers how to use the materials effectively.
  4. There is the immediate need for ministry of education to organize seminars, conferences and workshops to sensitize English Language teachers on how to use audio-visual aids in teaching-learning process.

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