Examining Motivation As An Instrument For Increased Productivity In An Organisation

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

A large part of manager’s test is getting things done through people; he must therefore try and understand people’s motivation. Man is a rational animal. When he behaves in a certain way, he does it for a reason. A motive is something which makes a person to act, a reason for behaviour. If, therefore, we want people to behave in a certain way so that the organisaiton can achieve its goals, we need to understand the kind of motives that will prompt them to do so. Motivation is not about manipulation, (controlling someone craftily). It about understands the needs or urges which prompt people to do things and providing ways of helping them to satisfy these needs through the organisation, while at the same time, harnessing their contribution to satisfy the needs.

It means then that all those who are responsible for the management of any organisation must build into the entire system factors that will induce people to contribute as effectively and efficiently as possible. A manager does this by building into every possible aspect of the organizational climate those things which will cause people to act in the desired ways.

A school of thought sees the pathway to motivate as the needs of the individual, the protagonist here being A. H. Maslow. He views needs as the origin of the motivation of the individual and postulates that the individual is more like to perform in that direction that would lead to the satisfaction of his predominant need (Ibekwe, O. U. 1984).

One of the most important problems confronting Inter-Continental Bank Plc, Uyo is how to improve the productivity of employees in their organisation. It is an acknowledged fact that productivity is a critical factor in the economic development of any economy. Productivity concerns itself with the efficiency and the effectiveness in the utilization of all factors of production especially labour. Low productivity given rise to high cost of labour which in turn affects the goods and services produced by labour thereby directly influencing the made in Nigeria goods.

The low productivity of Nigerian employee’s has been attributed to the employers’ failure to provided adequate compensation for hard work. Others blamed it on the exploitative attitude of some Nigerian Banks. The low productivity in organizations. Low productivity also traces to managers especially the indigenous managers who have failed to execute their managerial functions and thus have frustrated the initiative of workers. These managers are poor leaders of men and could hardly be the people to motivate work to higher productivity.

Productivity depends to a large extent on the effectiveness of management. This effectiveness, in turn, is influence by subordinate acceptance of the leader. The studies conducted in Nigeria have traced the low productivity of Nigerian employee to the unwillingness of the supervisor to manage effectively (Nwachukwu, 1998).

Another school of thought sees motivation as resulting from leadership behaviour and management exponents of this viewpoint are Blake and Mouton, McGregor, Likert and Herzbery. These behavioural scientist apart from explicitly emphasizing the need for organizing to pay attention to people’s need in so far as they lead to better performance are interested in proper leadership roles and creating the right environment that promotes performance (Ibekwe, O. U, 1984).

Those factors like recognition of achievement, responsibility, and advancement, reflect a need for personal growth and which are related to the job. These I call “Motivators”. It can be prove that these motivators, when sufficiently present, increase satisfaction from work and motivate, but when absent do not lead to dissatisfaction.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

Most public and private organisation like the Intercontinental Bank Plc, Uyo have experience a lot of motivational problems. Even the one associated with the choice of management in an organisation, this concept has affected the said organisation since its inception. Furthermore, the inability to set right goals, select the right choices, face reality, welcome and embrace change, show consistency and condone result in the poor performance of the organization, low productivity of workers in Intercontinental Bank Plc, Uyo are likely in the near future if motivation of staff is not properly addressed so as to act as an instrument for increased productivity. Poor staffing procedure guarantees reduced motivation by planning employees in job that either demand for little of them or requiring more of them than they are qualified to do. Experience has revealed that most organisation lack the initiative of addressing the issues of incentives which could range from prompt payment of salaries, provisions of standard accommodation and transport facilities, medical aids and many others. Most of these incentives are lacking in some organizations and as such staff are compelled to explore other means of survivals.

Especially in a developing economics, the influence of motivation on organizational efficiency has ceased to be in fashion. The management of many modern establishments tends to ignore the need for proper influence of motivation or organizational efficiency measure in the organizations. This is due to the fact that many managers are not enlightened on the important of the influences of motivation on organisation efficiency. It is therefore the problem of this study to determine motivation as an instrument for increased productivity in an organisation (e.g. Intercontinental Bank Plc, Uyo). Based on these observations, the study therefore seeks to investigate the strategies for efficient motivation and enhance productivity in the organisation.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The general objective of the study is to investigate motivation as an instrument for increased productivity in an organisation of Intercontinental Bank Plc, Uyo.

More specifically, the study aims at:

  1. Ascertaining the effect of motivation on the productivity of an organisation via Inter-Continental Bank Plc, Uyo.
  2. Assessing the appropriate management skills required of a leader for effective organisation management.
  3. Investigating the influence of motivation on the performance of the organizational task.
  4. Examining the employee’s attitude towards motivation and its effect on the development and growth of the
  5. Making useful recommendations on the strategies for efficiency and effective motivation that would enhance good productivity in the organisation.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions were raised for the study.

  1. Does Intercontinental Bank Plc, Uyo have proper motivational tools that could enhance an effective productivity in the organisation?
  2. What are the appropriate management skills and leadership style required of a leader for effective organizational management?
  3. How does a motivational role affect the organizational productivity?
  4. How does motivational roles affects proper performance of the organizational task?
  5. Does employees’ attitude towards motivation have an effect on the development and growth of the organisation?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

This research intends to test the following hypotheses which were stated in a null form:

HO1: There is no significant relationship between motivation and workers productivity.

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between effective motivation and proper performance of the organizational task.

HO3: There is no significant relationship between motivation and employees’ attitude toward development and growth of the organisation.

HO4: There is no significant relationship between motivational roles and management skills on productivity of the organisation.


1.6 Significance Of The Study

The basis of this study is to contribute and add to the existing literature on motivation and its effect on productivity in Inter-Continental Bank Plc, Uyo.

Those who would benefit from the findings of the study are:

The Managers of Bank’s:

Intercontinental Bank Plc, Uyo. The results will help to equip the managers to update their knowledge and skills in the efficient management of the Bank to enhance greater productivity and growth of the organisation.

The customers will benefit also from this investigation, since the improve services will facilitate the customers having quality services given by the Bank.

The Employees:

The result of the study will be significant to the employee’s the workers welfare will be properly considered as priority. Also staff development and training will be given adequate attention by the management.

The study will also be significant to the society since the findings of the study will bring about increased productivity and growth of the Bank, there shall be increased productivity and growth of the Bank, there shall be increased employment, and development of communities infrastructures by the Bank. The society will develop good perception about the Bank.

The findings of the study will also be significant to the shareholders of the company since it will facilitate improve management and growth of their Bank and they shall have improve dividend.


1.7 Scope Of The Study

This study is carried out to determine the motivation as an instrument for increased productivity of workers in Inter-Continental Bank Plc, Uyo as an organisation.


1.8 Limitations Of The Study

In any research, it is not uncommon for the researcher to encounter a number of problems while collecting data. This work is limited to information obtained from the respondents in form of questionnaire and interviews it is also limited to the secondary information obtained from the libraries and other text books etc.

Also, the researcher had limited time and space in the conduct of the project.


1.9 Definition Of Terms

It is imperative at this point to present the definition of major concepts that will frequently feature in this study.

This is necessary in that a particular concept may present connotations and meaning judging from the context, intention and usages of the writer.

Motivation

Motivation is the term used to describe those processes, both instructive and rational, by which people seek to satisfy that basic drives, perceived needs and personal goals, which a person to work in a particular way and with a given amount of effort and enthusiasm (Gibson, J. I. 2003).

Efficiency

Efficient means doing thing right at the lowest cost. It results from prudent use of available resources that is using resources in such a way as to reduce or completely eliminate waste.

Productivity

Is a quantitative or statistically weightier measure of how efficiently a given set of resources is used in achieving given sety of objective (Oimegwu, 1987).

Effectiveness

Effectiveness means doing the right things, it is the result of making the right choices and following through to their logical conclusion.

Organisation

Organisation is a collection of people who work together to achieve a wide variety of goals, organisation refers to formal organisation, which includes institution, business, company or corporate body.

Management

Management denotes employers of labour and those who formulate policies and executing business through the functional activities. It is the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling an organisation’s human, financial material and other resources to increase its effectiveness (Nwachukwu, C. C. 1998).

Manager

Manager is anybody who supervises one or more subordinates.

Managerial Skills

Managerial skills are the study of organizational behaviour that provides tools that managers can use to increase their ability to perform their functions and roles. A skill is an ability to act in a way that allows a person to perform well in his or her roles.


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