An Examination Of Youth Involvement In Crime In Utako Federal Capital Territory Abuja
This study was carried out to examine youth involvement in crime in Utako Federal Capital Territory Abuja. The study was specifically carried out to find out the prevalence of youth criminality in Utako, Abuja, find out the forms of crimes commonly committed by youths in Utako, Abuja, ascertain the causes of the rate of youths involvement in crime in Utako, Abuja and determine if youths involvement in crime is consequential to national development. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of youths residents in Utako Federal Capital Territory Abuja. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of youth criminality in Utako, Abuja is high. Furthermore, the study revealed that the causes of the rate of youths involvement in crime in Utako, Abuja includes: use of hard drugs, poor parental upbringing, lack of education, poverty and unemployment, bad government. Therefore,it is recommended that the youths can as well be exposed to proper mentoring by the older people who could serve to them as role models. This can significantly reduce the criminal act in them, reduce violent behaviour, decrease the likelihood of drug use, improve school attendance and performance and also improve relationships with parents and friends. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Criminologists have shown that crime is a global phenomenon, an inevitable event and multidimensional in nature. Some authors defined crime as an act committed or omitted in violation of law or value system of a society, to which legitimate punishment or sanctions are attached, and require the intervention of a public authority (Abosede, 2015; Marshall, 1998). Crime can be seen as functional parts of social relations and theoretical basis for many sociological enquiries since no society is free from criminality. In most cases, however, crime affects quality of life, socio-economic growth and development (Jiburum, Mba and Ezeamama, 2014). Thus, there is no excuse or legally acceptable justification for involving in criminal behavior. To this effect therefore, the study set out to examine perception on the trend and patterns of youth criminality in Ibadan Southwestern, Nigeria. In contemporary society, youth criminal behaviour has brought weight of burden, agony and losses incurred by innocent people, society and nation at large. As a result, government both at local, national and international level is making immense efforts through the security agencies to curb the menace (youth criminality). However, in Nigeria, instead of taming the menace, the dimensions of youth criminality keep on increasing day-in and day-out. More often than not, youths (literates and illiterates) are apprehends for one offence or the other almost every day.
On the complexity of criminality in Nigeria, Attoh (2012) reported that in less than a decade the statistic of murder in Nigeria increased by over 75 percent. The figure which stands at 1,629 in 1994 rose to 2,120 in 2001 and 2,136 in 2003 (CLEEN Foundation, 2007 cited in Attoh 2012). Likewise, the incidences of armed robbery boost above 52 percent from 2,044 in 1994 to 3,889 in 2002 (Attoh, 2012). To reveal the extent of crime in Nigerian urban cities, she further shows that in 2002, there were 52 reported cases of armed robbery in Abia State; but it rose to 176 in 2004. Similarly, in Edo State, there were 71 reported cases of armed robbery in 2002; however the number increased to 144 in 2005 and 163 in 2006. Furthermore, a total of 12,837 criminal cases and arrested 14,996 suspects were recorded in Lagos State in 2008 (Attoh, 2012). Crime situation in Nigeria is more intense in urban centers than rural areas due to high level of urban poverty, congestion, unemployment, cost of living, disorganization and moral decadence confronting urban system (see Adebayo 2013; Ahmed 2012; Okafor 2011; Agboola 2009). The preponderance of urban crimes in Nigeria is a reflection of deprivation, marginalization and breakdown in infrastructure and amenities that are suppose to manage or control crime among urban residents. Subsequently, Ajaegbu (2012) noted that the growing gap between the rich and poor affects the society through increased violence in Nigeria.
Furthermore, studies conducted by Adebayo (2013) and Ajufo (2013) revealed that youth unemployment contribute to a large extent on youth involvement crime. This is because an unemployed youth can be frustrated and as a result engage in immoral acts or crime which can threatens the socioeconomic peace and stability of any particular society. In similar view, Olutayo and Okunola (1998) noted that the breakdown of the extended family structure in which individuals or members of a community were communally parented largely contribute to occurrence of youth crime. More so, Akwara, Akwara, Enwuchola, Adekunle and Udaw (2013) revealed that poverty is a condition that force majority of youths into criminal activities such as stealing, kidnapping, vandalism, armed robbery, assassination, political thugs and militancy.
Youths are energetic, creative, vibrant and articulate individuals between ages of 12-35 years in whose hands lay the expectation of the future of every society (Waswa 2002). Unfortunately, when the hands of youth are not actively engaged for the progress of the society they are likely to be use as devil workshop that is, they may involve in criminal acts. This may be seen from Nigerian situation where there has been upward slope of unemployment rate that increased from 15% in 2008 to 19.7% in 2009, 21.1% in 2010 and 23.9% in 2011and is projected to hit 25% by the end of 2012 (USA Embassy in Nigeria, 2012; National Bureau of Statistics, 2012). Important to note here is that youth constitute the larger proportion of the unemployed workforce (Lamido 2013). Explicitly, Akanda and Okuwa (2009) between 40-60% of those unemployed in Nigeria are aged between 15-25 years while Rotimi (2011) puts the ages between 18 and 45 years. To this end, youths have had the highest unemployment rate in Nigeria. This phenomenon significantly influence youths involvement in crime as nearly all of those paraded by the law enforcement agencies before the mass media in the country as members of criminal groups fall within this age youthful bracket (Akwara, et. al, 2013). Likewise majority of those used in suicide bombings by terrorist groups in the country also fall within this age group. And most of those involved in insurgency are also of this age group (Solaja and Atere, 2015). To this effect, it is not gain saying the fact that the growing trend and patterns of youth criminality in Nigeria most especially in urban centers call for urgent attention to address.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
What is more is that these crimes appear to be increasing rapidly according to the statistics provided by the National Bureau of Statistics (2009:248). Exactly fourteen years after the return of Nigeria to Civil rule, most Nigerians, are disillusioned over the prospects of democracy, which they have fought and laboured to enthrone. According to Chief Supo Shonibare, an Afenifere Chieftain, rather than peace, stability and unity, the last five years have only bred poverty, joblessness, political strife, crime and insecurity. (Thomas, 2004:10).
From the look of things it appears crime remains one of the biggest businesses in Nigeria today and violent crime among young people had risen to unprecedented level (Igbo 2007). The inability of the appropriate authority to arrest and bring criminals to justice is an added incentive to crime perpetration in the country. The corresponding advancement in telecommunication technology which makes contact between criminals easier has added fillip to individual and collective insecurity. The new generations of criminals have proven to be more daring, blood thirstier, deadlier and even better equipped to practice this evil vocation. Everybody now appears to be potential victim, every organization is a potential target.
Therefore this study tends to examineon youthinvolvement in crime in Utako Federal Capital Territory Abuja.
1.3 Objective of the Study
Generally, the purpose of the study is to examine on youth involvement in crime in Utako Federal Capital Territory Abuja. Specifically it seeks to:
- Find out the prevalence of youth criminality in Utako, Abuja.
- Find out the forms of crimes commonly commited by youths in Utako, Abuja.
- Ascertain the causes of the rate of youths involvement in crime in Utako, Abuja.
- Determine if youths involvement in crime is consequential to national development.
1.4 Research Question
- What is the prevalence of youth criminality in Utako, Abuja?
- What are the forms of crimes commonly commited by youths in Utako, Abuja?
- What are the causes of the rate of youths involvement in crime in Utako, Abuja?
- Does youths involvement in crime consequencial to national development?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- Ho: The rate of youths involvement in Utako, Abuja is low
- Ha: The rate of youths involvement in Utako, Abuja is high.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The need for conducting the study lies on the fact that there is little or no effort has been made to examine the trend and patterns of youth criminality in Nigeria. Also, considering the fact that youths are vital ingredient in development of any given society a study on youth’s criminality is a global priority. More so, the phenomenon in which some of the youths who involved in crimes are educated (graduates from secondary and tertiary institutions).
The worst thing that would ever happen to any nation is to see educated citizens who are suppose to serve as engine of development involving in crimes, and most of them are involved in kidnapping, pipeline vandalism, rituals, cyber-crimes and advanced fee frauds. While the uneducated are mostly involved in violent crimes such as political thugs, hire assassins, highway robbers, car snatchers etc. which are worse in magnitude and scope than the violent crimes; and they have greater consequences on the socio-economic processes and administration of the country.
Furthermore, some studies suggest that unemployed youths are excessively more likely to be perpetrators, as well as victims of crime (Okafor, 2011; Adebayo 2013; Ajufo 2013). The self employed are in quandary as scant infrastructure makes it impossible for them to pursue their trade (Okafor, 2011). This is exacerbated by political corruption, poverty, poor governance, increasing population, and lack of policy initiatives and implementation to some extent encouraged criminal groups to thrive across Nigeria. In spite of the increasing deployment of security personnel such as police force, army, mobile soldiers as well as traditional vigilante groups to curb and control crime. It is disheartening to see youths (graduates and undergraduates) who are suppose to form the active labour force of the nation and vital human capacity for national development being apprehended, prosecuted and sent to prisons or receive harsher penalties hence affecting nation building. If the situation persists, what are the implication for the future of the individual youth, family and the nation? How can the trend or pattern of youth criminality be controlled to positively influence the future of youth and, by implication the society as a whole? This study set out to provide answers to these questions.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will examine n youth involvement in crime in Utako Federal Capital Territory Abuja. Therefore the study seeks to in and out the prevalence of youth criminality in Utako, Abuja, find out the forms of crimes commonly committed by youths in Utako, Abuja, ascertain the causes of the rate of youths involvement in crime in Utako, Abuja and determine if youths involvement in crime is consequential to national development. Hence the respondents for this study will be obtained from youths residents in Utako Federal Capital Territory Abuja.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Is best understood as a period of transition from the dependence of childhood to adulthood’s independence.
Is an illegal act for which someone can be punished by the government
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of the use of sub-standard materials on building construction using ministry of housing, Lagos State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine youth involvement in crime in Utako Federal Capital Territory Abuja. The study specifically was aimed at to find out the prevalence of youth criminality in Utako, Abuja, find out the forms of crimes commonly commited by youths in Utako, Abuja, ascertain the causes of the rate of youths involvement in crime in Utako, Abuja and determine if youths involvement in crime is consequential to national development.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents areyouths residents in Utako Federal Capital Territory Abuja.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- The prevalence of youth criminality in Utako, Abuja is high.
- The forms of crimes commonly committed by youths in Utako, Abuja includes: armed robbery, house breaking, kidnapping, drug trafficking, and rape.
- The causes of the rate of youths involvement in crime in Utako, Abuja includes: use of hard drugs, poor parental upbringing, lack of education, poverty and unemployment, bad government.
- Youths involvement in crime is consequencial to national development.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- Parents should provide for the needs of their children and monitor them properly. School administrators should find a way of assisting children from poor homes by providing them with basic needs.
- School administrators should liase with state social service officers and welfare divisions to chart means of proper monitoring and caring for youths from broken homes.
- The youths can as well be exposed to proper mentoring by the older people who could serve to them as role models. This can significantly reduce the criminal act in them, reduce violent behaviour, decrease the likelihood of drug use, improve school attendance and performance and also improve relationships with parents and friends.
- The school environment should be beautifully designed. This can make the youths interested in schooling and eventually reduce crime and fear. An effectively designed environment can also improve the overall quality of life.
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