An Examination Of Parents And Teachers Perception And Attitude Towards The Use Of Corporal Punishment In Secondary Schools In Irepodun Local Government Area

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An Examination Of Parents And Teachers Perception And Attitude Towards The Use Of Corporal Punishment In Secondary Schools In Irepodun Local Government Area


Abstract


The research work was set out to find out the Examination of parents and Teacher’s perception and attitude toward the use of corporal punishment in Secondary School in Irepodun LGEA.

Data were collected from two hundred randomly selected students through influence of an examination of parents and teachers perception and attitude towards the use of corporal punishment in secondary schools questionnaire.

Data collected were analysed using frequency, counts, percentage and t-test.

The results revealed that there were no significant differences in the influence of corporal punishment in secondary schools in Irepodun Local Government Area however found on the basis of parent and teachers perception and attitude.

Based on the findings, it was recommended that government should stop changing of educational system without reference to the effect on children in schools.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents

Chapter One

Introduction

  • Background to the Study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Purpose of the Study
  • General Questions
  • Research Questions
  • Research Hypothesis
  • Significant of the Study
  • Scope of the Study
  • Operational Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature

  • Introduction
  • Corporal Punishment and Indiscipline
  • Functions of punishment in the schools
  • Supporters of Corporal Punishment
  • Opposes of Corporal Punishment
  • Appraisal of Literature Reviewed

Chapter Three

Research Method

  • Introduction
  • Research Design
  • The Population
  • Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • Instrumentation
  • Validation of the Instrument
  • Reliability of the Instrument
  • Administration and Collection of Data
  • Data Analysis and Techniques

Chapter Four

Results and Data Presentation

  • Analysis of Results
  • Discussion of the findings

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Summary
  • Conclusion
  • Implication of the Study
  • Recommendations
  • Suggestion for further Studies
  • References

List of Tables


  • Table 1: Parent Frequency Response
  • Table II: Teacher Frequency Responses
  • Table III: Students Frequency Responses

Chapter One


Introduction

1.0 Background of the Study

The use of corporal punishment in our schools in Nigeria today has generated a lot of controversy among Nigerians. Before the Advent of formal education in Nigerian, corporal punishment was the means of maintaining discipline.

The family has used the care as a means of correcting the child. Those who introduced formal Education in Nigerian also used corporal punishment. In Quranic schools, Mallam (Teacher) were seen holding a long whip in front of their pupils which could reach almost each pupil. Infact the whip facilitate the concentration of the children (pupils) in learning Quranic schools.

While the Quranic schools were mostly in operation in the Northern part of the country. The missionaries introduced Western Education through the south but also made use of corporal punishment. The uses of the care for discipline children religions institutions were also supported.

The use of corporal punishment nowadays has however generated a lot of arguments among schools such as philosophers, sociologist and psychologists. Such people like J.J. Rousseau; Quintillion to mention but a few. There is no concession on the use of corporal punishment because it has generated a lot of controversy.

One school of thought believes that corporal punishment should be used in schools. They maintained that its abolition would lead to a break down of school discipline and pupils will become lawless. It was because of this that the military government posted soldiers to our schools to maintain discipline through the use of the cane. To make the use of corporal punishment especially the use of cane is a reality.

President Olusegun Obasanjo in 1976 to 1979 witnessed the public fogging of a student in one of the secondary schools in Sokoto during his tour to the state.

Some religion leaders who believed in the use of corporal punishment made reference to use Holy Bible. For example, in the book of Proverb Chapter Thirteen Verse Twenty Four: Stated that he that spared his rod hated his son but he that loveth him chastened”. Also in the same Proverbs Chapter Twenty Nine Verse Fifteen, is written, “the rod and reproof given wisdom but a child left to him bringeth his mother to shame.” What these two verses are saying is that we should beat the child wherever he or she commits an offence. These people believed that corporal punishment is very important in our schools is discipline is to be achieved.

Finally, they concluded that the current vices like Murder, Armed Robbery, and house-breaking Laziness. Sexual immorality, Alcoholic addiction embezzlement and all other ills of our society may likely be traceable principally to indiscipline at home and in the school.

That might be one of the reasons why the Government of General Buhari and Late Tunde Idiagbon launched the Ware Against Indiscipline (WAI) to inculcate the sense of discipline.

On the other side of the argument, some argued that it is not possible to punish and reform simultaneously as punishment is essentially damaging to the offender.

The proponents of this view often refer to school incidents such as physical beating, pulling of ears, knocking of the heads which some times result into permanent physical damages and often lead to teacher–parent student conflicts. For example, a secondary school a student was cared by his teacher in the process the student sustained severe eye injury. The schools of thoughts uphold the view that corporal punishment hardens some student’s heart and makes them notorious in school while some left school entirely.

Some people maintained that some teacher who believe in Education as an end in itself any student who does not share this belief receive the same administered corporal punishment. Some teachers do it as revenge by beating the student next day for not greeting the teacher after school hours.

The abolitionists of corporal punishment felt that students could be brought up morally without necessarily using too of came. Quoting the biblical book of Proverbs, Chapters Twenty-Two Verse Six which says; “train up your child in the way he should grow and when he is old he will not depart from it”. Good training especially from youth is considered a good and effective deterrent of emotional and moral laxity.

Professor Kwaku Adaevoh a one time Vice Chancellor of University of Lagos said that father should try to bring their children to persuasion and create a dialog by talking from experience which is the best Teacher, “charity begins at home”.

The home (parents) should teach their children the will of God. They should teach them what God want from man. His love and punishment that awaits evil doers. In other words the child that has been nurtured on the importance of doing God’s will by obedience to the Ten Commandments will try as an adolescent or adult to mirror the personality of his maker. He is therefore less likely to manifest delinquent and other aberrant patterns of behaviour.

Thus, because of the evil effect of corporal punishment, the old western region banned the use of the cane in schools when the Universal free primary Education was introduced in 1955. However despite its abolition some teachers still use it in some schools. Inspite of the use of corporal punishment in all institutions, acts of indiscipline and lawlessness are still rampant in our schools.

It is necessary to point out that teacher’s opinion on the use of corporal punishment are not the same. Some of their felt that the abolition would increase the moral decadence in Schools. Some believed that the use of cane is part of our tradition and should be freely used if we want discipline to be maintained in our school. On the part of the students corporal punishment and also hate the teachers who indulge in it. Such teachers are targets of attack during student riot.

Because of the different opinions on the issue of corporal punishment, researcher therefore proposes to survey the attitudes of teachers towards the use of corporal punishment and compare, it with those of the students in some selected secondary schools in Irepodun Local Government Area of Kwara State.


1.1 Statement of the Problem

Corporal punishment is regarded as part of our culture. The Yorubas believed that the use of cane is an instrument of discipline and therefore it should be seldomly used. Opinions differ concerning the use of corporal punishment in schools. Some people favour the use, while others rejected or threw it to the wind in our schools.

The problem to be investigated by the researcher is whether the teachers and student have favourably or unfavourably attitudes towards the use of corporal punishment in schools. Moreso, the study will examine some hypothesis with respect to teacher and student attitude on the issue.


1.2 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is:

  1. To find out teacher and parent perception on the use of corporal punishment as a corrective measure.
  2. To compare the perception of Teacher’s and parents on the use of corporal punishment in the schools.
  3. To investigate the purpose, where and when it is necessary to apply punishment to school children in Nigeria schools.
  4. To compare Teachers and parental attitude towards the use of care in schools and at home.
  5. To provide necessary information for decision-making to re-introduce corporal punishment in various schools in the state.

1.3 General Questions

  1. What are the attitudes of parents towards the use of corporal punishment in schools?
  2. What are the necessary actions to apply punishment to school children in Nigeria?

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions are:

  1. Do Teacher and parents’ perception favour the use of corporal punishment as a corrective measure?
  2. Is it necessary to apply punishment to school children in Nigeria?
  3. What are the attitude of Teachers and parent towards the use of corporal punishment in schools and at home?
  4. What are the factors determine the effective of punishment?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  1. There is no significant relationship between teachers and parents perception of the use of corporal punishment.
  2. There is no significant relationship between the attitudes of teachers and parents towards the use of corporal punishment in school and at home.
  3. There is no significant relationship between factors determine the effectiveness of punishment

1.6 Significant of the Study

This study in significant in the following ways it is hoped that this research will be invaluable use to school counsellors and teachers who have been trained to work with student and being expose to altitudes toward corporal punishment in secondary schools, the study will up date their knowledge in the art of parent and teachers need; more especially in the area of corporal punishment.

Above all, it serves as a reference point to prospective researchers who will find it very useful in the area of literature review, research methods and statistical analysis. It is also believed that education agencies such as the federal and state ministries of education as well as Teaching Science Commission and Educational Management Boards will find this research to be immense value.

Finally, it is pertinent to determine the general attitude of teachers and students towards the use of corporal punishment in schools and to highlights its dejects. Also, it will be useful to educationists, policy makers, planners, administrators and teachers in adopting overwhelmingly accepted techniques of handling discipline problems.


1.7 Delimitation and Scope of the Study

This research covers mainly some selected secondary schools in Irepodun Local Government Area of Kwara State.

  1. Offa Grammar School
  2. Olalomi Comprehensive High School
  3. Adesoye College
  4. Anglican Commercial College
  5. Tawakalitu Secondary School

The study also looked at the attitude of teachers and parents towards corporal punishment and their effects on the student academic performance.


1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Corporal Punishment:

This means the infliction of pains, suffering loss or social disability as a direct consequence of some action or omission on the part of the person punish. It may consist of flogging, physical assault like being made to assume certain painful posture for a considerable period of time. The agent of punishment must be in a position of legitimate authority over the punished.

Indiscipline:

This refers to certain acts in school normal setting, misdeed which is knowingly and intentionally committed by student including such acts as stealing, fighting, examination mal-practice, cheating, and flagrant disobedient.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary

The study was designed primarily to determine the attitudes of teachers and students towards the use of corporal punishment as a discipline measure in secondary schools. Also the study was designed to bring together contrasting opinions and attitude so that the reader can be given the grand work on which on which to base his own conclusion.
Questionnaire forms were given to thirty Eight teachers and one hundred and thirty students in some selected Secondary Schools in Irepodun Twenty parents were also given questionnaire forms to full.

Simple percentage was used to analysis the responses. From the analysis in chapter four, it can be observes that most of the responses formed the use of corporal punishment in the school.

However, even though the majority of them are in support of the use of the cane or the students. They assert that the Government should not legalize it.


Conclusion

Corporal punishment is still a controversial issues up till today, some people still hold the opinion that it hasn’t any advantage and therefore, it uses should be discouraged in our schools. However, available evidence through the questionnaire and oral interview showed that corporal punishment should not be phased out of the school. If discipline is to be effective in schools corporal punishment should but be eradicated. The Government has no clear cut policy on the use of the cane in schools. During the first tenure of General Olusegun Obanbsanjo as the head of state in 1977, soldiers are drafted to secondary schools to help administer corporal punishment.

Also, one time Commissioner for Education Late Goshi A.Y. gave Principal of Government Secondary Schools Ilorin the Authority to flog twelve students who misbehave during a football match involving his school and Government Technical School Ilorin.

Professor H.O Thomas declared that although all the basic agencies of educating the child in the community, the family, the school, the play group and the religion institutions recognized that they all have their parts to play. Jointly and severally in providing lasting solutions to be present pressing problem of student unrest, none of those agencies has far been able to produce an Effective measure of discipline.

Since people in schools today would be adults of tomorrow, the tone of the society must be set right from the schools through reward and punishment so that the society may be well ordered and discipline.


Implication of the Study

This study has addressed an examination of parents and teachers perception and attitude towards the use of corporal punishment in secondary schools in Irepodun Local Government Area. It gives the policy matters some insight into the perception and attitude towards the use of corporal punishment in secondary schools in Irepodun Local Government Area of Kwara State.


Recommendations

Some writers on the use of corporal punishment have humped together the ideals whether corporal punishment should be used or should not be use in the school. In the researcher’s findings, it is interesting to note that both teachers and students agreed on the use corporal punishment. The cane however does not solve any problem rather it tends to aggravate it. It must be emphasized that firmness is not synonymous with punishment but can be achieved within the frame work of a positive approach.

It has been suggested by Good and Brophy (1973) that successful class room management is a primarily a matter of preventing problems before then occur. Rather than an ability to deal with them after they have occurred.
The only attempt to meet the two problems of helping a child to come to terms with school community and offending the strength of the post oral system. The teachers must have time to give the individual counselling and guidance that are needed to begin to build a relationship in which mutual trust can develop. Tom was quoted in Arnold Jenneys; Discipline in primary Secondary Schools to day (1979 – 1990) as saying that there should be no room for corporal punishment.

Teachers should prepare their curriculum well for the students if this is done, in discipline in the classroom will be eradicated. The researcher does not suggest that negative forms of control are to be excluded altogether but the balance between positive and negative form of punishment should be ratio four to one. The child should be given sufficient warning and chance to try to improve his ways”. Corporal punishment should not be given for bad work. The punishment book must be signed each time a child is given corporal punishment.


Limitation to the Study

This study simply addresses schools within Irepodun Local Government Area only. Its will use only 10 schools within the Local Government Area and 200 respondent only to answer the questionnaire. Because of finances reasons most of the school cannot be covered for this study.


Suggestion for further Studies

Studies can also be carried out in the aspects of on the examination of parents and teachers perception and attitude towards the use of corporal punishment in secondary schools in Irepodun Local Government Area.


An Examination Of Parents And Teachers Perception And Attitude Towards The Use Of Corporal Punishment In Secondary Schools In Irepodun Local Government Area


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An Examination Of Parents And Teachers Perception And Attitude Towards The Use Of Corporal Punishment In Secondary Schools In Irepodun Local Government Area


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