Examination Malpratices And Its Adverse Effects On Teaching And Learning With Emphasis On Physics In Secondary School

Project and Seminar Material for Physics

Project and Seminar Material for Physics


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Statement of the problem
  • 1.2 Purpose of study
  • 1.3 Significance of the study

Chapter Two

2.0 Background Information

  • 2.1 Literature reviews
  • 2.2 Types of examination malpractice
  • 2.3 Causes of examination malpractice
  • 2.4 Disadvantages of examination malpractice
  • 2.5 Remedies to examination malpractices

Chapter Three

3.0 Analysis Of Examination Malpratice

  • 3.1 Methodology
  • 3.2 Data collection, that population, techniques instrument for data collection.
  • 3.3 Analysis of data

Chapter Four

4.0 Discussion Of Findings

  • 4.1 Summary
  • 4.2 Conclusion
  • 4.3 Recommendations
  • 4.4 Suggestions for further researches

Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion Of Findings And Recommendations.

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Malpractice according to Collins gen. English Dictionary could be defined as an immoral illegal or unethical conduct. It could be understand that any act that has no legal backing, could be termed as “malpractice”.
Examination malpractice is therefore an act of doing something, irregular and unlawful during examination.

According to Awokolo (1997) called “EXPO 77” is the emphasis for the paper leakage of examination papers of the highest magnitude in the history of west African examination council in the state. He went on towards to mention that it was second, perhaps by that of 1970. the leakage was country-wide and so rampant that the federal military government had to set up a commission of enquiring into the causes and remedy of examination paper leakage in the country.

According to Odetola (1973), it could be recalled that five take the examinations. These are Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierelaleon, that it is a matter of regret that it was only Nigeria that examination paper leaked is a perennial problem and it was only in Nigeria that the 1977 school certificate examination paper leaked. He also mentioned that among the papers that leaked were; mathematics, chemistry, physics, English language and others.

Obiakor (1979) reported that a total of one hundred and thirteen thousand, seven hundred and twenty three candidates (113,723) took the examination out of this number two hundred and twenty one witnesses testified to the commission of enquiry investigating the woe. They were also over too hundred and twenty six exhibits.

Nwokolp (1977) continues to mention that examination papers were sold at varying prices in different parts of the country. In Bende state he mentioned, a Paper sold between six hundred and sixty naira were sold as low as two or three hundred naira in some other states. He reported that the commission was told of the threats to the life pf persons who tried to forestall the malpractice. And one surprising example was that involving in youth corper in Port-Harcourt. The corper escaped, living his property for students who wanted to execute him.


1.1 Statement Of The Problem

Physics stands for monumental in all our efforts to attain technological glory. It has been identified as the only one subject that holds the magic ward to the secret of other school subjects. It pervades the realms of science and technology business arts.

Nigeria curriculum experts no doubt have recognized the virtue of physics and have made central focus of the 6-3-3-4 educational system whose main objective is functionalism. They were quick to realize that the ones lies in physics and its teaching and learning critical thinking, logical thinking and learning critical thinking, logical thinking reversibility of thought, power of imagination and visualization for precision and accuracy open social mindedness. These are essential ingredients to actualize functionalism. Teaching and learning of physics invariable become one of the core subjects in 6-3-3-4 system of education even interview.

Students therefore graciously desire a pass in physics. There is an obstruction to students realization of their ambition of passing physics.

Ihejieto (1993), has observed that most of the time most students are discouraged from studying physics most students are discouraged from studying physics through poor teaching, non challenges of teacher, lack of teaching aids, peer influence and lack of students readiness.

In Nigeria where emphasis has shifted to acquisition of money as the vitimate. The rigorous treatment and study of physics together with the drive joy not satisfying social expectations, students easily read this and the effect is the pursuit of lower virtue while still recognition the important of teaching and learning physics, the students see the boil with ferry at the elegance of geometric proofs, the structure of algebra, the basic arithmetic processes and distribution of data in physics.

Basic to the thanking Iheagwa (1987), these have no attraction to our youths, who fall the air with emission naira does not understand physics. Naira does not understand physics yet these students wants to buy physics naira, their attempts and how far they have succeeded is the subject of the research. These is therefore a growing worriness to investigate.

  1. The extent of examination malpractice in Physics.
  2. How far students have adopted these means of cheating into physics.
  3. There peculiar reasons for examination malpractice in taking physics examination.
  4. What effects do examination malpractice have on the studying of physics students.

1.2 Purpose Of The Study

The study of this research is to further investigate the means of cheating adopted while taking physics examination. Since it is known that physics by its nature and scope does not lend itself to copying and usual examination malpractice. The cause of examination malpractice is physics examination will also investigated.

The effects on teaching and learning of physics and other cognate disciplines will be geared towards suggesting remedies to this in our development of the teaching of physics is known concrete to abstract, faculty assessment of students ability results in inefficiency in teaching and learning of physics in students problems with regards to previous issues are not identified. The one thing decisive examinations where some students can always afford to cheat, has contributed in no small way truancy, indiscipline and moral decadence in our schools.


1.3 Significance Of Study

Examination malpractices a diseased situation in the educational enterprise. Any attempt at investigating the scale of practice is highly significant. To determine the root cause of examination malpractice after students must have spent not less than six years in the secondary school is a worth while venture.

The adverse effect of examinations malpractices in the study of physics is the interest of this study of physics is the interest of this study as these effects are already taking on the awareness, it will create about the different methods usually applied by students.

In cheating during physics examination the suggested remedies as hoped will reduce the practice to the barest minimum. This will also serve as a determinate structure upon which future investigation on this subject will be.


Chapter Five


Discussion Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations

The spread of examination malpractices in our secondary schools in Nigeria is like wild fire during harmattan. Almost all secondary schools have been infected with this virus.

Teachers as well as students are involved, examiners as well as supervisor are rock deep in the practices. This situation is revealed in table 1,100% of the member of teachers interviewed are of the opinion that the practice of examination malpractices.

Malpractice has grown by heaps and bonds the funding here support the funding of Obiakor (1970) and Nwokolo(19770 that extensiveness and intensity of examination malpractices have assumed alarming proportion since 1970.

It is evident from table 2 that students indulge more in copying . 100 out of the respondent s represent 100% of the number, agreed that examination malpractices affects the teaching and learning of physics.

They also agreed that copying is part of it students actually copy from notes, text books and other materials. They feel relevant to the examination.

In physics examination are usually found copying worked, examples and proof of theories.

Nwokolo’s report in 1977 that copying is most rampant when students have pre-knowledge of the question paper is greatly reinforced.

One the question paper leaks the students are found running helter, skelter for people to provide solutions to the questions. These solutions are thereafter copied them for use in examination hall. If the leaked paper are confirmed to be original or what is known as white paper,” grafting is another form of copying, here the student copies from another student work in the examination.

The student who does this lacks self pride confidence and competence and sublets his intellectual integrity to another, accepts as his superior. This examination malpractices has been identified as the most traditional and most common place of all examination malpractice. A response score of 100% confirm this view.

Impersonation is fast strolling into our educational system disturbed. In the practice, ill-prepared students faced with examination, pay some due to other student to write the examination for them.

This is rampart with external examination (G.C.E) General certificate of education ordinary level. The growth of this practice can not be unconnected with society’s accomplice if (W.A.E.C) West African Examination council close its eyes to this practice perhaps in sympathy with aging workers who indulge in the practice to earn certificates to enable them earn their promotions.

Exchange and comparison of answers scripts are fast giving way to the responses score of 100% recorded for the item.

Question paper leakage and sale of score are more grievous in examination malpractice but they are mostly committed by teachers and examination officials themselves.

Most studies examination malpractice center on the causes . these studies have succeeded in identifying the main causes of examination malpractice. The findings here agree with the report of OLatoyosi (1972) that the erratic services of West African examination certificate resulting in heavy work load is a major cause.

It supports Odetola (1977) that over emphasis placed on paper qualification as agent stills and competencies possessed is also a cause.

The spread of examination malpractices in our secondary schools in Nigeria is like wild fire during harmattan. Almost all secondary schools have been infected with this virus. Teachers as well as students are involved, examiners as well as supervisors are rock deep in the practices. This situation is revealed in table 1,100% of the number of teachers interviewed are of the opinion that the practices of examination.

Malpractices has grown by heaps and bonds the findings It is evident from table 2 that students indulge more in copying . 100 out of the respondent s represent 100% of the number, agreed that examination malpractices affects the teaching and learning of physics.

They also agreed that copying is part of it students actually copy from notes, text books and other materials. They feel relevant to the examination.


5.1 Summary

Examination malpractice is a social illness that cuts across the educational system home, and society. Ray Ofoegbu commissioner for information, youth and sports, Imo state in his key note address to Imo state youth at their annual conference held on 18th January 1980.

“Examination malpractices are evil. It destroys self confidence and lowers educational standards, destroys happiness of families, run many youths for life and bring bad names to our state and our respected secondary schools and colleges.

So, to effect correction on this, the schools as well as the society at large have their own contribution in keeping this cankerworm that has wrecked our academic remove originality of knowledge.

Schools may lack adequate staff and school equipment but the use of continuous assessment appropriate important to the minimization and correction of examination malpractices.


5.2 Conclusion.

  1. Students involvement in examination malpractices is to a large extent significant.
  2. The examination malpractice is mostly common with students and include, copying impersonating, girafing, exchanging of answers etc.
  3. Causes of examination malpractices include desire for good grades inadequate preparation of students for their examinations. Lack of self confidence resulting from poor grooming of the students and lack of coverage of students syllabuses, social persuasion and success by all means mentality.
  4. Examination malpractices have devastating effect on the teaching and learning of physics.
  5. Some of the measures to check examination malpractices are adequately coverage of students syllabuses, preparing them adequately for their examinations, appointment of person of integrity as supervisors and examiners, ensuring adequately.

5.3 Recommendations.

Based on the findings of the study the following recommendations are made.

First, in view of the fact that students in their studies and more importantly used for promotion of students into certification, its conduct should be planned very well and executed in such a way that it would be cheating free, so that any evaluation based on the4 result of the examination would be valid.

Secondly, examining bodies e.g. West African examination council (ASEC) particular should over hail their system especially those entrusted with the conduct of their examination in order to keep abreast with the challenges posed by examination malpractices, west Africa examination councils should dispose of all officials indicated with corruption charges ranging from scale of question papers, to other like offences such as outright changing of marks and grades. Also corrupt examiner should be punished when gotten.

Again supervisors and invigilators who receive money from students and aid them in cheating instead of approaching them should be made to face several disciplinary actions.

Teaching should have a new student should be well taught as well as should be exposed to all relevant learning experience in respect of their examination. Schools should invest in strategies of arresting students attention and engaging them in reading culture which would crest necessary for the confidence and poise students to face their examination with no fear of passing well.

There should be massive propaganda on the dangers of examination malpractices. There the appreciation of the virtue of passing honorably. This organization of seminar workshops and symposiums. Continuous assessment should be religiously applied to reduce the cheating associated with summative examination or single shot examination.

Cheating is a matter of conscience, since only truth on read the conscience. It is my recommendation here that telling ourselves there truth in all situations is the panasea to examination malpractices.


Suggestions Further Researchers.

This study is by no means conclusive. It opens up to more areas for further studies. As a result of the findings of this study and the observations made the researcher like to suggest that this work is carried in other local government area in Enugu state.


Examination Malpratices And Its Adverse Effects On Teaching And Learning With Emphasis On Physics In Secondary School


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