Examination Malpratices And Its Adverse Effects On Teaching And Learning With Emphasis On Physics In Secondary School

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Project and Seminar Material for Physics

Project and Seminar Material for Physics


I dedicated this project work to God Almighty who made it possible for this work to be successfully done. Also to my beloved father Eng. Joseph Chukwude, whose financial and moral support made this work possible to my mother Mrs. Chukwude Charity, my brothers and my sisters, friends, well wishers who by one way or the other contributed immensely to my success to this little certificate.

To my beloved family I pray that God in his infinite grace to bless them abundantly and grant them long life and prosperity. Amen.


It is quite obvious that for a researcher study to be successful carried out, the researcher must have benefited from the assistance and co-operation for many people.

My greatest thanks therefore should first of all be giving to God Almighty who heard my cry and quest for academic excellence and his sustaining grace during this period of my academic pursuit.

It is always difficult to acknowledge of name all those who have assisted one intellectually and also heard to know where to draw a line. But to the followings I am indebted and grateful to my supervisor Mr. E.N Azubuike for his kindness, patience, correctness, guidance and expert advice throughout the phases pf this study.

I am also pleased to offer my sincere gratitude to all my lecturers in the department of Physics and chemistry, particularly to Dr. Mrs. Daby Coleman, etc.

My unreserved and enduring gratitude goes to my beloved father Eng. Chukwude Joseph and the entire family for their immense moral and financial support throughout the duration of my education.

To them, I say, thanks and God bless, also to my brother and sisters, I say thanks and more grease to their elbow.

Chukwude Lydia

Table Of Contents

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Contents

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Statement of the problem
  • 1.2 Purpose of study
  • 1.3 Significance of the study

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Background Information
  • 2.1 Literature reviews
  • 2.2 Types of examination malpractice
  • 2.3 Causes of examination malpractice
  • 2.4 Disadvantages of examination malpractice
  • 2.5 Remedies to examination malpractices

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Analysis Of Examination Malpratice
  • 3.1 Methodology
  • 3.2 Data collection, that population, techniques instrument for data collection.
  • 3.3 Analysis of data

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Discussion Of Findings 
  • 4.1 Summary
  • 4.2 Conclusion
  • 4.3 Recommendations
  • 4.4 Suggestions for further researches

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Discussion Of Findings And Recommendations.
  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Malpractice according to Collins gen. English Dictionary could be defined as an immoral illegal or unethical conduct. It could be understand that any act that has no legal backing, could be termed as “malpractice”.
Examination malpractice is therefore an act of doing something, irregular and unlawful during examination.

According to Awokolo (1997) called “EXPO 77” is the emphasis for the paper leakage of examination papers of the highest magnitude in the history of west African examination council in the state. He went on towards to mention that it was second, perhaps by that of 1970. the leakage was country-wide and so rampant that the federal military government had to set up a commission of enquiring into the causes and remedy of examination paper leakage in the country.

According to Odetola (1973), it could be recalled that five take the examinations. These are Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierelaleon, that it is a matter of regret that it was only Nigeria that examination paper leaked is a perennial problem and it was only in Nigeria that the 1977 school certificate examination paper leaked. He also mentioned that among the papers that leaked were; mathematics, chemistry, physics, English language and others.

Obiakor (1979) reported that a total of one hundred and thirteen thousand, seven hundred and twenty three candidates (113,723) took the examination out of this number two hundred and twenty one witnesses testified to the commission of enquiry investigating the woe. They were also over too hundred and twenty six exhibits.

Nwokolp (1977) continues to mention that examination papers were sold at varying prices in different parts of the country. In Bende state he mentioned, a Paper sold between six hundred and sixty naira were sold as low as two or three hundred naira in some other states. He reported that the commission was told of the threats to the life pf persons who tried to forestall the malpractice. And one surprising example was that involving in youth corper in Port-Harcourt. The corper escaped, living his property for students who wanted to execute him.

1.1 Statement Of The Problem

Physics stands for monumental in all our efforts to attain technological glory. It has been identified as the only one subject that holds the magic ward to the secret of other school subjects. It pervades the realms of science and technology business arts.

Nigeria curriculum experts no doubt have recognized the virtue of physics and have made central focus of the 6-3-3-4 educational system whose main objective is functionalism. They were quick to realize that the ones lies in physics and its teaching and learning critical thinking, logical thinking and learning critical thinking, logical thinking reversibility of thought, power of imagination and visualization for precision and accuracy open social mindedness. These are essential ingredients to actualize functionalism. Teaching and learning of physics invariable become one of the core subjects in 6-3-3-4 system of education even interview.

Students therefore graciously desire a pass in physics. There is an obstruction to students realization of their ambition of passing physics.

Ihejieto (1993), has observed that most of the time most students are discouraged from studying physics most students are discouraged from studying physics through poor teaching, non challenges of teacher, lack of teaching aids, peer influence and lack of students readiness.

In Nigeria where emphasis has shifted to acquisition of money as the vitimate. The rigorous treatment and study of physics together with the drive joy not satisfying social expectations, students easily read this and the effect is the pursuit of lower virtue while still recognition the important of teaching and learning physics, the students see the boil with ferry at the elegance of geometric proofs, the structure of algebra, the basic arithmetic processes and distribution of data in physics.

Basic to the thanking Iheagwa (1987), these have no attraction to our youths, who fall the air with emission naira does not understand physics. Naira does not understand physics yet these students wants to buy physics naira, their attempts and how far they have succeeded is the subject of the research. These is therefore a growing worriness to investigate.

  1. The extent of examination malpractice in Physics.
  2. How far students have adopted these means of cheating into physics.
  3. There peculiar reasons for examination malpractice in taking physics examination.
  4. What effects do examination malpractice have on the studying of physics students.

1.2 Purpose Of The Study

The study of this research is to further investigate the means of cheating adopted while taking physics examination. Since it is known that physics by its nature and scope does not lend itself to copying and usual examination malpractice. The cause of examination malpractice is physics examination will also investigated.

The effects on teaching and learning of physics and other cognate disciplines will be geared towards suggesting remedies to this in our development of the teaching of physics is known concrete to abstract, faculty assessment of students ability results in inefficiency in teaching and learning of physics in students problems with regards to previous issues are not identified. The one thing decisive examinations where some students can always afford to cheat, has contributed in no small way truancy, indiscipline and moral decadence in our schools.

1.3 Significance Of Study

Examination malpractices a diseased situation in the educational enterprise. Any attempt at investigating the scale of practice is highly significant. To determine the root cause of examination malpractice after students must have spent not less than six years in the secondary school is a worth while venture.

The adverse effect of examinations malpractices in the study of physics is the interest of this study of physics is the interest of this study as these effects are already taking on the awareness, it will create about the different methods usually applied by students.

In cheating during physics examination the suggested remedies as hoped will reduce the practice to the barest minimum. This will also serve as a determinate structure upon which future investigation on this subject will be .

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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