Examination Of The Level Of Political Participation Of The Ruralities

Political Science Education Project and Seminar Material

Examination Of The Level Of Political Participation Of The Ruralities


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the level of political participation of the ruralities in Ojo local government area of Lagos state. The study was carried out to determine whether low level of education has declined the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo, determine whether the culture of corruption has contributed to the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo, determine whether the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo area is due to political culture in Nigeria, and determine whether low socio-economic development of ruralities has contributed to the level of political participation in Ojo. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of residents of Ojo local government area of Lagos state. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the low level of education declined the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo. Furthermore, the study revealed that low socio-economic development of ruralities contributed to the level of political participation in Ojo. Therefore, it is recommended that promotion of education in general and political education in particular in the rural communities in order to increase their level and scope of political awareness and participation is paramount. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Political participation includes the political activities of citizens aimed at influencing the political process. Such participation could be either in an individual or group basis. The political process may be the ways, directions and methods of governance or the input of the outcomes of the process. The political activities that may involve their participation: selection of leaders, influencing decision of government and the process of governance. (Okafor 2002).
Political participation includes those action of private cities by which they seek to influence or support government and politics. Political participation could either be conventional or orthodox and unconventional or unorthodox. Writing on convention and non-conventional political participation. Janda et. al. state as follows:-

Thus, conventional participation is legal, constitutional, acceptable and normal. Activities here may include voting, campaigns and attendance to party meetings, expressing political opinions, standing for elections, registration as a party member and as a voter for an election contesting for elective offices, party funding. These activities are in consonance with the normal political process. Unconventional political participation includes those activities that are not acceptable, not regarded as lawful and legal, not sanctioned or not normal. They include such activities as riots, strikes, violent, demonstration, arson, boycotts, rebellion, terrorism, cultism, protests, and the like. It is felt that a higher propensity for the emergence of unconventional participation is accentuated by the existence of narrow or very limited conventional modes. For people to express their feelings and be heard under a trained mode they have to resort to unconventional approaches.

Conventional (orthodox) political participation is of two fold. There could be supportive participation or influencing participation. Under the supportive dimension, our citizens express allegiance or loyalty to the state and government. Examples include singing the national anthem, reciting the national pledge or making reference to such symbols as the national flag and the coat of arms, turning out for voting purpose, etc.

The influencing dimension is concerned with efforts to modify or reverse government policy to suit political interests. Examples include trying to secure some benefits from government, asking for special social or welfare services from the government such as setting up a health canter, construction or rehabilitation of roads, sitting, a public school or police post e.t.c.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

From the above background of study, political participation is the vehicle through which citizens of a given society communicate their interests, demands, desires, support and or proposition to the authoritative decisions of the superstructure. However it seems the levels of people participation in politics are narrow may be due to the assertion that “politics is a dirty game”. Since 2003, democracy has come to be regarded as the source for political participation active towards rural direction. Therefore, this study would seek to find solutions to the following problem:-

  1. Low level of education.
  2. The culture of corruption.
  3. Parochial political culture.
  4. Subject political culture.
  5. Primordial sentiment and low socio-economic development.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary objective of the study is to examine the level of political participation of the ruralities. The specific objectives is as follows:

  1. Determine whether low level of education has declined the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
  2. Determine whether the culture of corruption has contributed to the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
  3. Determine whether the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo area is due to political culture in Nigeria.
  4. Determine whether low socio-economic development of ruralities has contributed to the level of political participation in Ojo.

1.4 Research Question

The research questions to be investigated are:

  1. Has the low level of education declined the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo?
  2. Has the culture of corruption contributed to the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo?
  3. Is the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo area due to political culture in Nigeria?
  4. Has low socio-economic development of ruralities contributed to the level of political participation in Ojo?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The level of political participation of the ruralities is not low.
  • Ha: The level of political participation of the ruralities is high.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The significance of this study will encourage active participation of individuals in the political process of their community. The study will also make the citizens to share in governance through expression of consent, choice, rejection of the leader and certain policies considers obnoxious. Through participation, the citizen makes some input in governance through the expression of demands, preferences, orientations, judgments and political process.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is the level of political participation of the ruralities in Ojo local government area of Lagos state.

The scope was chosen due to the low level of political participation of the people in the area and individual development.


1.8 Delimitation of the Study

The study will be limited to the ruralities in Ojo local government area of Lagos state on the level of political participation in 2008-2009.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Influence:

Power to produce an effect, esp. on character, beliefs or action.

Political Participation:

Is the involvement of individual in political activities. It can be through electional activities covers voting, campaigns, seeking to persuade others to vote for a given candidate or party.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the level of political participation of the ruralities in Ojo local government area of Lagos state. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the level of political participation of the ruralities in Ojo local government area of Lagos state. The study specifically was aimed to determine whether low level of education has declined the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo, determine whether the culture of corruption has contributed to the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo, determine whether the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo area is due to political culture in Nigeria, and determine whether low socio-economic development of ruralities has contributed to the level of political participation in Ojo.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are residents of Ojo local government area of Lagos state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The low level of education declined the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
  2. The culture of corruption contributed to the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
  3. The level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo area due to political culture in Nigeria is low.
  4. Low socio-economic development of ruralities contributed to the level of political participation in Ojo.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Promotion of education in general and political education in particular in the rural communities in order to increase their level and scope of political awareness and participation is paramount.
  2. There should be an encouragement of rural dwellers to engage in political participation beyond voting, or to participate in other political activities including seeking and holding political and administrative offices at various levels of governance.
  3. There should be provision of more news or information mechanisms and opportunities to the rural people.
  4. Institutionalization and strengthening of mechanisms and instruments that engender and sustain free, fair and objective political processes and good governance, since these are paramount factors in the promotion of political participation.
  5. Extension of more benefits of democracy or political opportunities to the rural people

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