An Examination On The Impact Of Instructional Material On Teaching And Learning Of Social Studies

Social Studies Project Topic

An Examination On The Impact Of Instructional Material On Teaching And Learning Of Social Studies


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of instructional material on teaching and learning of social studies in Ilorin West LGA.The study was carried out to identify the level of availability of instructional materials being used for teaching and learning social studies in secondary schools in Ilorin West LGA, examine the adequacy of the instructional materials used for the teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools in Ilorin West LGA, determine the attitude of teachers towards the use of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools in Ilorin West LGA, and examine the environmental factors influencing the use of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools in Ilorin West LGA. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of Social Studies Teachers in all Public Junior Secondary School of Ilorin West LGA. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 50 respondents and all were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool.The result of the findings reveals that the available instructional materials used in the teaching of social studies. The respondents agreed Teachers does makes use of community resource(market place, Social Centers, Church, Mosque etc) to enhance teaching of Social Studies.The study also revealed that the Adequacy of Instructional Materials used in teaching of social studies. The respondents agreed that printed materials for teaching of Social Studies e.g. Textbooks, Newspaper, Teachers guide etc are the only Social Studies Instructional Materials Adequately Available. Therefore, it is recommended that the Social Studies teachers should endeavour to use and try to improvise instructional materials for effective teaching of Social Studies in the secondary schools.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The influence of instructional materials in promoting students’ teaching and learning in educational development is indisputable. Teaching at any level requires that the students be exposed to some form of simulation. Adekunle (2008) noted that an instructional material in social studies means anything that can assist the teacher in promoting teaching and learning. When the students are given the chance to learn through more senses than one, they can learn faster and easier. The use of instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to learn more. Furthermore the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic.

Social studies was introduced into the Nigerian school system to achieve one of the philosophies of Nigerian education as indicated in the National Policy on Education which is “the development of the individual into a sound and effective citizen” (FGN, 2004). The realization of this objective through Social studies is possible since the subject is an integrated programme which are taught and learnt in Social studies looks at all aspects of the life of the child in the society. It is further stated in the National Policy on Education (2004) that education is to achieve the inculcation of national consciousness and national unity; the inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society. Therefore, Social Studies teaching has been a factor in determining whether a society will have democratic attitudes, values, problem-solving and decision-making skills and whether the society will consist of productive and participatory individuals (Ozturk and Otluoglu, 2002; Keeler, 2008). In Social Studies teaching, which is given such an important mission; it is possible to make the learning process easy, enduring and meaningful through the use of instructional materials. Orakwe (2000) refers to instructional materials as information repositories from the society sourced to transfer the desired information to the learners during classroom instruction. Agwu (2001) views Instructional Materials as those apparatus of teaching which may include textbooks, workbooks, charts, audio visual aids, chemicals, specimens and other relevant things that will attract students’ attention, and which should only be introduced at the appropriate time by the teacher.

Instructional materials are software and hardware that are used to make lessons more meaningful and clearer to learners. They are devises that appeal to multi model senses which help the learners conceive, perceive, internalize, interpret and transfer the experiences gained to similar or different learning situations. These materials and equipment, could be those that appeal to the sense of hearing-known as audio material/ equipment those of seeing called visual materials/equipment and those that combine the two senses called audio-visual materials.

The teacher alone cannot provide all the needed condition for an effective teaching and learning process, other supporting materials should be provided. The students learn better when most of the senses are appealed to the instruction and use of instructional materials in Social Studies education has added a new dimension in the positive promotion of the teaching and learning process. It provides the much need sensory experiences needed by the learners for an effective and meaningful behavioural change. Instructional materials are meant to improve the quality of education for effective learning of students in schools. The performance of the students on the intended learning outcome provide the validation – loop on the success other interaction and instruction (Bakare, 1986).

In making use of any instructional materials factors that influence it must be considered, such materials must be previewed that is, having full knowledge of the material; prepare the environment where it will be used; prepare audience by means of making sure that the materials to be used will attract attention, arouse, motivate and provide the rationale that could be used in the beginning, middle or end. The effectiveness of utilizing appropriate instructional materials in teaching and learning of Social Studies is not void of quality instructor. In order to give quality education to the younger generation, there is need for employment of more competent, experienced and qualified Social Studies teachers. The need to identify the suitable instructional materials, by which students can be made to comprehend the extent of the subject easily and intelligibly, is the focus of this study. An in depth look at the secondary schools Social Studies programmes revealed that there is the need for improving all phases of the programmes (IMAA, 2004). For example, there is need for the introduction and use of instructional materials and equipments for use in both the classrooms and Social Studies Museum. The broad aim of any good training materials are to induce and support the learning process that leads to improve on-the-job performance through affecting changes in the knowledge, attitudes, skills and practices of the learners. With the above reasons, it is worth investigating the influence of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Social Studies in our Secondary Schools, for better performance of students in their examination and chosen career in any field of life. If instructional materials are used in Secondary Schools, it would help improving the teaching and learning and hence the learning of students in Social Studies effectively.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Poor performance of Students in Social Studies Public Junior Secondary Schools in Ilorin West LGA may partly be attributed to poor usage or lack of sufficient instructional materials to teach social studies. Lemchi (2001) noted that some students are losing interest in the subject due to the attitudes of teachers towards teaching Social Studies without the use of instructional materials which tends to affect students’ performance in the subject. Research consistently shows that teacher usage of instructional materials is a powerful determinant of student achievement gains.

Many of the school authorities have very lukewarm attitudes over the provision of needed tools, equipment or materials required for effective Social Studies teaching. This non-challant attitude tends to retard genuine efforts of some teachers of Social Studies in the secondary schools (Bello, 2010). Inspite of the emphasis being placed on social studies as one of the integrated subjects in secondary schools. Hence, the prosecution of a functional education in relation to Social Studies in secondary schools still leaves much to be desired. In view of this difficulties, (Omeiza, 2011) opined that most teachers of Social Studies still resort to the theoretical method of teaching the subject (i.e explaining without an object to make learning real) which makes learning not interesting to learners. This undoubtedly, is contrary to the improvement of Social Studies education, which is greatly needed at this period of our development with emphasis on practical oriented learning (Mammudu, 1996). It is therefore imperative to carry out a study on the impact of instructional material in teaching and learning of social studies in Ilorin West LGA.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this study is to determine the impact of instructional material on teaching and learning of social studies in Ilorin West LGA. The specific objectives are to:

  1. Identify the level of availability of instructional materials being used for teaching and learning social studies in secondary schools in Ilorin West LGA.
  2. Examine the adequacy of the instructional materials used for the teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools in Ilorin West LGA.
  3. Determine the attitude of teachers towards the use of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools in Ilorin West LGA.
  4. Examine the environmental factors influencing the use of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools in Ilorin West LGA.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were answered in the course of the study.

  1. What are the available instructional materials used for the teaching and learning of social studies in Junior secondary schools in Ilorin West LGA?
  2. How adequate are the instructional materials used for the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ilorin West LGA?
  3. What is the attitude of teachers towards the use of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ilorin West LGA?
  4. What are the environmental factors influencing the use of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ilorin West LGA?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between the use of instructional materials and the effective teaching/learning of social studies.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between the use of instructional materials and the effective teaching/learning of social studies.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This research work “Factors influencing the use of Instructional Material on the learning of Social Studies in Junior Secondary School, Ilorin West LGA is significant and useful in the teaching and learning of social studies. Subsequently, the findings from the study will help Social Studies teachers in choosing an appropriate instructional material(s) capable of releasing students’ tension towards the subject thus improving students’ learning in social studies. It will motivate Social Studies teachers to develop interest towards utilizing suitable teaching materials that will be a possible means towards reducing failure in the teaching and learning of social studies. Findings of this study will also help clarify among the teachers the need for continuous and regular improvisation of suitable instructional materials for teaching and learning of social studies.

Moreover, the results of this study will be of great significance to the Social Studies curriculum planners. The curriculum developers will find the work useful in reviewing the Social Studies curriculum by seriously laying emphasis on utilization of instructional materials so as to meet up with emerging needs of the society. This study will be of immense benefit to researchers in the field of Social Studies by forming a basis for further studies on the usage of instructional materials and teachers’ quality.

This study will also be of benefit to principal as they would understand more on where their Social Studies teachers’ ineffectiveness comes from in the area of instructional material usage and this would set the base for what they can do in order to help the teachers and hence improve their effectiveness toward influencing learners with the use of instructional materials.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study is aimed at explaining the factors influencing the use of instructional materials for learning of Social Studies in junior secondary schools in Ilorin West LGA, availability of instructional materials influencing learning of social studies, teachers attitudes towards the use of instructional materials, and environmental influencing instructional materials usage.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other secondary schools. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition Of Terms

FGN:

Federal Government of Nigeria.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents a general summary of the present research work carried out by the researcher. The outlines of areas discussed were the conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further studies.


5.2 Summary

The study was carried out to determine the impact of instructional material on teaching and learning of social studies in Ilorin West LGA. In order to achieve this objective, four specific objectives were raised which included: Identify the level of availability of instructional materials being used for teaching social studies in secondary schools in Ilorin West LGA. In line with these objectives, four research questions were formulated and four null hypotheses were posited . The total population for the study is the Junior Secondary Schools in Ilorin West which was made up of 50 Social Studies Teachers’.

Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 50 respondents made up of Social Studies Teachers only were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings in this study, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. The failure rate of students will be curtailed if social studies teachers were made to utilize appropriate and relevant instructional materials adequately while teaching Social Studies in junior secondary schools.
  2. Students will perform better in Social Studies when the instructional materials possess the characteristics of appropriateness, relevancy, visibility, sufficiency, simplicity and attraction, hence improve students academic performance in Social Studies.
  3. Instructional materials were very important to influence students academic performances in Social Studies as they can simplify and clarify what is complex and difficult to express in words.
  4. The Social Studies knowledge and subsequent performance of students in junior secondary schools and Social Studies as a subject becomes more interesting to learn when it was taught by experienced, well committed, dedicated and qualified Social Studies teachers.

5.4 Recommendations

The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study.

  1. The Social Studies teachers should endeavour to use and try to improvise instructional materials for effective teaching of Social Studies in the secondary schools.
  2. Government should ensure the adequate employment of dedicated and qualified Social Studies teachers to teach the subject in all secondary schools in the study area and in the state.
  3. Suitable and adequate textbooks on utilization of Social Studies materials should be made available to all secondary schools.
  4. Government should make available funds and sponsor the teachers’ attendance at conferences, seminars and workshops on utilization of Social Studies instructional materials.
  5. The government through the Ministry of Education(MOE), should make available Social Studies instructional materials for use by teachers to enhance students’ academic performance in Social Studies.
  6. Parents should not be left out in the drive to provide and encourage the effective utilization of Social Studies instructional materials by their children in secondary schools. Once parents and guardians realize the importance of instructional materials in the education of their children and wards, they will not hesitate to give moral, material and financial support for the use of Social Studies instructional materials.

5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies

The researcher suggests the following areas for further studies.

  1. Research should also be carried out on teachers’ attitude towards improvisation of teaching resources for effective teaching of Social Studies
  2. This study concentrated on the influence of instructional materials on students’ academic performance in Social Studies, other subjects such as Civic education, Geography etc should also be researched into, for a total
    upliftment of education in Nigeria.
  3. An assessment of competence teachers in the Social Studies contents should be carried out too. This is to assess the personnel handling the teaching of Social Studies and arrange for their capacity building.
  4. The researcher also recommends the basic instructional materials for special students (disables).

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