An Examination Of Factors Influencing The Low Employment Rate Of People With Physical Disability In Nigeria

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An Examination Of Factors Influencing The Low Employment Rate Of People With Physical Disability In Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out on the factors influencing the low employment rate of people with physical disability in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff of Nigeria Labour Congress, Abuja. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 53 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between education system and employment rate of people with disability in Nigeria.The study also revealed that there is a significant relationship between public awareness on disability and low employment rate of people with disability in workplaces. Therefore, it is recommended that changes of institutional framework that keeps the disabled excluded from taking part in decision that affect them, making the same degree freedoms as the rest of the people education, work and leisure, in economic, social and political life.here is for a need strong organizations of and for disabled that are run and represented by disabled people themselves. The organization is dominated by on disabled people, this should be seen as a sign of weakness and not integration as it is sometimes said in many cases: Strong consumer organizations should include all disabled people regardless of diagnosis. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Disability is a cross cutting issue. It involves every sector of society. Everyone should be aware of the needs of people with disabilities (PWD) and which should be included in all development processes. There is no universally agreed definition of disability though historically disability was seen primarily as a medical condition, with the problem located within the individual. This Medical or individual model was challenged by disability activists who re-conceptualized the definition as captured in “Chronic Poverty and Disability” (Yeo R. 2001).

It is estimated that there are 500 million people with disabilities in the world and that a majority of them live in developing countries (IDF, 1998). Every year, millions of people are disabled through poverty related diseases. It is acknowledged that the International Development Targets are unlikely to be met unless the needs and rights of people with disabilities are addressed. Yeo (2001) argues that there is no country in the world where people with disabilities rights are not violated. The discrimination, violence and abuse faced by people with disabilities do not respect national boundaries, national wealth or national poverty.

According to Yeo (2001) disability is generally viewed as an abomination, disgrace or a curse from God but this is not true. Families and society have not accepted people with disabilities and as such they are hidden away from society to avoid family and social discrimination.

Various efforts have been made to change the perception of disabled people in the society. These include the enactment of various form of legislation, conventions, and various strategies aimed at improving society‟s perception of them. Despite some improvement, this negative perception is still a problem in many, especially, developing countries, including Tanzania. People with disabilities are still considered as a second class citizens.

They are discriminated against and denied most of their rights. They are devalued firstly, because of their education, and secondly because of the myths and misconceptions about impairment. There are often far reaching and mistaken assumptions that disabled do not need work, that their financial security will be provided by their families and that their main role will be at home because their capacity to do much else is limited. These attitudes need to be changed in order to insure that the right to employment to people with disabilities is realized.

Many countries throughout the world in recent years, adopted policies aiming to promote the rights of people with disabilities to full and equal participation in the society. This has often been in the response to the ILO Convention No. 159 concerning vocational rehabilitation and employment of disabled persons: Policy on employment opportunities for people with disabilities. Improving legislation and implementation strategies have been identified as one of the main issues to be tackled in the African decade of disabled persons 1999-2009.

The effectiveness of law in improving employment opportunities for disabled persons –whether they are vocational rehabilitation laws, quotas legislation or anti- discrimination legislation is central ,not only in terms of the economic rights of disabled people, but also their broader social and political rights, which are closely linked to economic empowerment. Nigeria enacted the Disabled person, employment Act, No.2 in 1982. This Act established a quota system requiring that two per cent of the workforce in companies with more than 50 employees must be people with disabilities. It also established the national advisory council, the role of which was to advise the minister responsible for the social welfare of people with disabilities (ILO, 2009). Disabled persons employment Act, 2010, impose similar requirement with respect to the employment of people with disabilities. Specifically, Article 31 require employers to hire and maintain the employment to people with disabilities and establish workforce quota under which every employer with the workforce 20 or more individuals must employ person with disability at the rate at least 3% of the employee‟s total workforce.

In addition to requiring workforce quotas, Article 31 of the Act further advance the employment of person with disabilities in several other ways, it requires every employer to submit an annual report to the government on the employment status of person with disabilities who are employed in his or her office. Equal treatment to persons with disabilities is required to any office in terms of wages, salaries, leaves, or accommodation.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Employment is a fundamental human right and important for every human being including persons with disabilities. It can provide economic security and independent, also give people value and status as an individuals. It helps with integration and acceptance by the non-disabled and most importantly it gives life a purpose (Yeo R. 2001). According to Disabled Persons (Employment) Regulation, 1985 (Government Notice No, 464/1984) define the eligibility and registration requirement for disabled people under the disabled person employment Act, 1982. They reserve for disabled persons two per cent of vacancies in vocational and training centres and require every registered employers to reserve at least two per cent of jobs for registered persons with disability. Also, Disabled person employment Act 2010, imposes similar requirements with respect to the employment of people with disabilities, Specifically, Article 31 requires the employer to hire and maintain the employment to people with disabilities and establish workforce quotas under which every employers with the workforce of 20 or more individuals must employ persons with disability at the least 3% of the employee‟s total workforce.

However, the Act intends to help people with disability to get employment opportunity; but the disabled employment Act register small number of persons with disabilities compared to non-disabled people, two per cent or three per cent is not enough to empower people with disabilities. So another modification of this Act is needed in order to increase the percentage of registration at least 10 per cent of vacancies must be reserved to people with disability.

Moreover the implementation and supervision of employment and labor relation Act, 2004 section 7 and 8 of the Act is require employers to ensure that they promote equal opportunity in employment and strive to eliminate discrimination in any employment policy and practice. It also prohibit direct and indirect discrimination on all ground including disability.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine the factors influencing the low employment rate of people with physical disability in Nigeria.

Specifically, other objectives of this study are:

  1. Determine whether there is relationship between education system and employment rate of people with disability in Nigeria.
  2. Ascertain if there is a significant relationship between public awareness on disability and low employment rate of people with disability in workplaces.
  3. Ascertain whether there is any relationship between environmental barriers and low employment rate of People with disability?

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. Is there any relationship between education system and employment rate of people with disability in Nigeria?
  2. What is the relationship between public awareness on disability and low employment rate to people with disability in workplaces?
  3. Is there any relationship between environmental barriers and low employment rate of People with disability?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses will validate this study:

  1. There is no significant relationship between education system and employment rate of people with disability in Nigeria.
  2. There is no significant relationship between public awareness on disability and low employment rate to people with disability in workplaces?.
  3. There is no significant relationship between environmental barriers and low employment rate of People with disability.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study have both theoretical and practical significance:

The study is a response to various debates raised by many scholars concerning the problem of low employment rate to people with disability which hinder full participation of people in the society. The findings of study may also contribute and act as an aspiration to academicians and other people who want to add or to quantify what have been found and discussed, or make further studies related to the topic. Furthermore, the study will be an additional to the existing literature on employment rate to people with disability in Nigeria. The study will generate recommendations that may be used to improve living condition of people with disability in Nigeria. Modification in some policy and regulations in employment to people with disability may be needed in order to increase access to employment opportunities to people with disability in Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the factors influencing the low employment rate of people with physical disability in Nigeria. Specifically, this study focuses on determining the extent disabled people are employed in Nigeria, determining whether there is an education system for people with disability in Nigeria, determining whether there is public awareness on term disability at the workplace in Nigeria and identifying whether there are environmental barriers to people with disability at the work place in Nigeria.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Disability

Disability refers to disadvantages or restriction of activity caused by contemporary social organization which takes nor or little account of people who have impairment and thus excludes them in the mainstream of social activities, (Oliver, 1999).

People with disability

An individual whose prospects of obtaining and retaining an employment are greatly reduced due to known physical, mental, or social factors. (Charlotte, 2009).


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the factors influencing the low employment rate of people with physical disability in Nigeria. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the factors influencing the low employment rate of people with physical disability in Nigeria. The study is was specifically set to determine whether there is relationship between education system and employment rate of people with disability in Nigeria, ascertain if there is a significant relationship between public awareness on disability and low employment rate of people with disability in workplaces, and ascertain whether there is any relationship between environmental barriers and low employment rate of People with disability.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of Nigeria Labour Congress, Abuja.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a significant relationship between education system and employment rate of people with disability in Nigeria.
  2. There is a significant relationship between public awareness on disability and low employment rate of people with disability in workplaces.
  3. There is a significant relationship between environmental barriers and low employment rate of People with disability.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Changes of institutional framework that keeps the disabled excluded from taking part in decision that affect them, making the same degree freedoms as the rest of the people education, work and leisure, in economic, social and political life.
  2. There is for a need strong organizations of and for disabled that are run and represented by disabled people themselves. The organization is dominated by on disabled people, this should be seen as a sign of weakness and not integration as it is sometimes said in many cases: Strong consumer organizations should include all disabled people regardless of diagnosis.
  3. Government must consider the rights of persons with disabilities to participate in their societies. Participation can be achieved primary through political and social actions. Every effort must be to raise awareness of the society to the needs of the disabled and their responsibility in meeting these needs. We need legislation on the outright discrimination experience everyday by disabled people.

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