Examination Of The Factors Impeding The Implementation Of Open Defecation Law In The North

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Examination Of The Factors Impeding The Implementation Of Open Defecation Law In The North


Abstract


In this study, our focus was on the Examination of the factors impeding the implementation of Open Defecation Law in the North, Bindawa Local Government Area of Katsina State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the feasibility of the law; to Determine socio-economic factors impeding the law; to examine the causes and effect of open defecation in the northern Nigeria and to recommend solutions to the socio-economic factors impeding the law.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are residents of North, Bindawa Local Government Area of Katsina State.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Open defecation continues to be a critical health challenge globally, affecting almost 1 billion people worldwide and contributing significantly to an estimated 842,000 people who die yearly from sanitation-related diseases. Open defecation is a major environmental health problem facing many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Although open defecation rates have been reducing gradually since 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) era ended without all countries in sub-Saharan Africa achieving target 7.C., which included reducing by half the proportion of the population without sustainable access to basic sanitation by 2015. Some estimates indicate that, at the current rate, this can only be achieved by 2026. All sustainable development goal (SDG) regions saw a drop in the number of people practicing open defecation, except for sub-Saharan Africa, where high population growth led to an increase in open defecation from 204 million to 220 million, and in Oceania, where the practice increased from 1 million to 1.3 million. This information is supported by studies such as Osumanu and Kosoe, which shows that open defecation in Ghana has increased over the years resulting in several environmentally endemic health problems.

The existence of open defecation is associated with diseases, under nutrition and poverty, and is usually considered as an affront to personal dignity. Those countries where open defecation is most widely practiced have the highest numbers of deaths of children under the age of five, as well as high levels of under nutrition, high levels of poverty, and large disparities between the rich and poor [3]. In sub-Sahara Africa, 200,000 children under the age of five die from diarrhoea annually, while the numbers dying from cholera within the region are similarly high because of poor sanitation, hygiene practices, and unsafe water supplies.

Nigeria has been ranked second after Sudan in Africa for open defecation, with almost 5 million Nigerians in the rural areas not having access to any toilet facility. The number of people practicing open defecation in Nigeria was reported at 18.75% in 2015. This refers to the percentage of the population defecating in the open, such as in fields, forests, bushes, open bodies of water, on beaches, and in other open spaces or those who dispose human excreta with solid waste. The practice is most prevalent in the Upper East Region with about 89% of the people without any form of latrine, followed by the Northern Region with about 72%. Households which have no toilet facilities of any kind available for use at home in the northern part of the couintry mostly resort to use of the bush or the field or small receptacles that are available for defecation. The seriousness of the situation is that children are the leading culprits, particularly because toilet facilities are usually not designed to meet their needs.

Though open defecation is predominantly a rural phenomenon, it is estimated that 8.22% of the urban population in sub-Saharan Africa practice open defecation. The practice of open defecation in urban areas needs attention because research has shown that detrimental health impacts (particularly for early life health) are more significant from open defecation when the population density is high. For instance, the same amount of open defecation is twice as bad in a place with a high population density average vis-a-vis a` low population density average.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Open defecation is increasingly becoming alarming in the Wa Municipality, putting residents at the risk of sanitation related diseases such as cholera, diarrhoea, and typhoid. A recent study by Kosoe and Osumanu has shown that 52% of households do not have any toilet facility at home and resort to the use of available bushes, uncompleted buildings, and open spaces within their neighbourhoods. Human faeces are found in open spaces and in-between houses, some rapped in black polythene bags, with the resultant stench and flies nuisance. The sight and smell of faeces within residential neighbourhoods reduce the aesthetic quality of the environment and causes embarrassment to residents and visitors to the municipality.

Open defecation practices in every society are surrounded by sociocultural and economic factors, which must be well understood before any sanitation programme can hope to be effective. Against this backdrop this seeks to examine the factors impeding the implementation of Open Defecation Law in the North.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The major objective of this study is to examine the factors impeding the implementation of Open Defecation Law in the North. Specifically this study aims to

  1. Determine the feasibility of the law
  2. Determine socio-economic factors impeding the law
  3. Examine the causes and effect of open defecation in the northern Nigeria
  4. Recommend solutions to the socio-economic factors impeding the law

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Can the implementation of Open Defecation Law in the North be feasible?
  2. What are the socio-economic factors impeding the law implementation?
  3. What are the causes and effect of open defecation in the northern Nigeria?
  4. What are the solutions to the socio-economic factors impeding the law implementation?

1.5 significance of the Study

The examination is done within the context of open defecation practices across the entire north (both rural and urban). Unlike earlier studies this study provides a comprehensive quantitative examination of the determinants of open defecation based on identified sociocultural and economic factors. The main contribution of this paper is analysis of significant determinants of open defecation in the north.


1.6 Scope / Limitation of the Study

This study on the Examination of the factors impeding the implementation of Open Defecation Law in the North will be focused on the Bindawa Local Government Area of Katsina State.

Limitation of the study
Financial constraints:

Finance was a major limiting factor to this study

Language difference:

The language difference between respondents and researcher proved to be a major factor, he employed the services of a research assistant.

Time:

Time was a limiting factor as the researcher had to combine academic work and the research work.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the Examination of the factors impeding the implementation of Open Defecation Law in the North, Bindawa Local Government Area of Katsina State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the Examination of the factors impeding the implementation of Open Defecation Law in the North, Bindawa Local Government Area of Katsina State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the feasibility of the law; to Determine socio-economic factors impeding the law; to examine the causes and effect of open defecation in the northern Nigeria and to recommend solutions to the socio-economic factors impeding the law.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are residents of North, Bindawa Local Government Area of Katsina State.


5.3 Conclusions

With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;

The immediate causes are financial constraints, lack of land or space for latrine construction, lack of skills or knowledge on latrine construction, lack of construction materials, the distance to and from the latrine and the household and weather condition.

The study explored that the main sites for open defecation as the bush or field, polythene bags commonly known as „rubber‟ in the community, rubbish dump, especially by the households that do not own latrine facilities, those sharing and those using public latrines. Sharing of latrines was a common practice in the community due to the nature of their settlement such as living as tenants in rentals where all households under ownership of one Landlord share the same latrines.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. The government should ensure construction of more decent public latrine facilities in the Municipality to end open defecation practices.
  2. The landlords should also be given a must task of ensuring that every rentals they have should contain latrine facilities.
  3. The cost of using the public latrines/toilet facilities should be at a subsidized price that everyone who do not have these facilities at their households or any other person can afford to pay and at least the usage of the facilities should be made free for children and the aged.
  4. The government with the help of Non- Governmental Organizations and other agencies should create more awareness, education and sensitization of the community on proper sanitation management especially on latrine use and consequences of open defecation.
  5. The local government should put laws in place against those who openly defecate to promote suitable behavioral practices in the community and discourage unhealthy existences.
  6. Lastly, the local community leaders and the community members should be fully involved in the process of planning, developing and implementing policies regarding the proper sanitation and hygiene in the community.

Examination Of The Factors Impeding The Implementation Of Open Defecation Law In The North


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

  PAY WITH CRYPTOCURRENCY


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • Examination Of The Factors Impeding The Implementation Of Open Defecation Law In The North

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Disclaimer


This research material “Examination Of The Factors Impeding The Implementation Of Open Defecation Law In The North” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Examination Of The Factors Impeding The Implementation Of Open Defecation Law In The North” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.