An Examination Of Covid-19 Pandemic And Unemployment In Nigeria

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An Examination Of Covid-19 Pandemic And Unemployment In Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out on examining Covid-19 pandemic and how it has affected the unemployment rate in Nigeria Gboko Local Government Area Of Benue State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to find out if Covid-19 pandemic increased the rate of unemployment in Nigeria, find out how Covid-19 pandemic contributed to unemployment in Nigeria and ascertain possible solutions to the rate of unemployment caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of youths in Gboko Local Government Area Of Benue State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that Covid-19 pandemic increase the rate of unemployment in Nigeria. Furthermore, the study revealed that Covid-19 pandemic contribute to unemployment in Nigeria in differents such as: it led to offloading of staffs by business organizations, It resulted to the closure of SMEs, it resulted to the closure of market places and it affected rural economic activities. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should provide both monetary and fiscal palliative measures for the most vulnerable, though the stimulus packages were commendable but ineffective for lack of appropriate parameters for their implementation. Arising from the above, it was recommended that for peace to reign, employees should avoid putting all their eggs in one basket, and for unforeseen contingencies such as this novel pandemic, employees should have an extra source of income by going into side businesses like blogging, rentals, online advertising, and investment in stocks with high returns. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The pandemic of corona virus 2019 (COVID-19) is having a major effect on Nigeria. It is the most important public health issue in many of our lifetimes, as well as the most major geopolitical phenomenon of our decade. The required policy response to halt its spread, as well as the subsequent downstream consequences, have had a significant negative impact on the economy; economic activity in several sectors has dwindled. Stock market averages have dropped sharply from their pre-epidemic peak, and unemployment has increased significantly from its previous level. Academic, corporate, and community care programs are both facing significant funding losses in addition to increased costs from hospital modifications and increased personnel as the front lines of this response.
With a large population of over 180 million, no state would be immune to the pressures of this case, while some will have had more time to plan. According to Cavallo (2020), what is clear is that the pandemic would necessitate tight cooperation with the public sector, health-care distribution processes, and human actions.

About the fact that the Covid-19 disease first appeared in China in December 2019, Nigeria registered its first index case on February 27th, 2020. (Ohia, Bakarey, & Ahmad, 2020). According to the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), the disease has expanded to more than 30 states since then, with the number of reported cases and deaths rising on a regular basis (Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, 2020). Corona virus disease 2019 is an infectious disease that is popularly known as Covid-19 (Moore, 2020). It is a highly contagious illness that spreads from person to person (Adnan, Khan, Kazmi, Bashir, & Siddique, 2020). (Unhale, Ansar, Sanap, Thakhre & Wadatkar, 2020). Near connections are often affected by respiratory droplets produced when an infected individual sneezes or coughs (Harapan, Itoh, Yufika, Winardi, Keam, Te & Mudatsir, 2020). Although interventions such as lockout, social distancing, self-isolation or self-quarantine, and observation of basic hygiene habits such as routine hand washing, wearing facemasks, and covering the mouth with a handkerchief when coughing or sneezing have been advised to limit disease spread among people (Ohia, Bakarey & Ahmad, 2020).


1.2 Statement of Research Problem

Long before the emergence of covid-19, unemployment has been a major challenge in Nigeria. Provision of job opportunities is limited by the government (Public sector) and the private sector carries most of the responsibility in providing job opportunities for Nigerian citizens. This however, is not enough to bring an end to the issue of unemployment in Nigeria and as a result of the covid-19 pandemic, there has been a spike in unemployment rate, as it lead organizations to lay off staff.

This study seeks to examine the Covid-19 pandemic and how it has affected the unemployment rate in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

This study aim at analyzing and examining the Covid-19 pandemic and how it has affected the unemployment rate in Nigeria. In order to achieve the aim, the following objectives shall be adopted.

  1. Find out if Covid-19 pandemic increased the rate of unemployment in Nigeria.
  2. Find out how Covid-19 pandemic contributed to unemployment in Nigeria.
  3. Ascertain possible solutions to the rate of unemployment caused by the Covid-19 pandemic.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Did the Covid-19 pandemic increase the rate of unemployment in Nigeria.
  2. How Covid-19 pandemic contribute to unemployment in Nigeria?
  3. What are the possible solutions to the rate of unemployment caused by the Covid-19 pandemic?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Covid-19 pandemic did not contribute to the rate of unemployment in Nigeria.
  • Ha: Covid-19 pandemic contributed to the rate of unemployment in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be helpful in the academic field as it would be an addition to the issue of covid-19 and its effects on unemployment. This study would also be helpful for researchers who want to create a link with covid-19 and how it has affected other sectors or industries. This study will be helpful to the government in order for them to formulate policies that prevent the spread of Covid and also reduce the rate of unemployment in Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is limited to Covid-19 and its effects on unemployment in Nigeria. It would only cover the relationship between covid-19 and unemployment in Nigeria as well as solutions to reduce the rate of unemployment in Nigeria.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

This study was limited as a result of time and the necessary funds to carry out the research in depth.


1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

1. COVID-19:

A virus that causes improper breathing, has side effects and can may lead to the death of an individual.

2. Unemployment:

The rate at which individuals do not have any means of livelihood to survive and fend for themselves and their families.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on examining Covid-19 pandemic and how it has affected the unemployment rate in Nigeria Gboko Local Government Area Of Benue State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on examining Covid-19 pandemic and how it has affected the unemployment rate in Nigeria Gboko Local Government Area Of Benue State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out if Covid-19 pandemic increased the rate of unemployment in Nigeria, find out how Covid-19 pandemic contributed to unemployment in Nigeria and ascertain possible solutions to the rate of unemployment caused by the Covid-19 pandemic.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are youths in Gboko Local Government Area Of Benue State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. Covid-19 pandemic increase the rate of unemployment in Nigeria.
  2. Covid-19 pandemic contribute to unemployment in Nigeria in differents such as: it led to offloading of staffs by business organizations, It resulted to the closure of SMEs, it resulted to the closure of market places and it affected rural economic activities.
  3. The possible solutions to the rate of unemployment caused by the Covid-19 pandemic includes: employment generation, industrialization, sound economic policies, provision of basic infrastructure and skill acquisition.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;

  1. The government should provide both monetary and fiscal palliative measures for the most vulnerable, though the stimulus packages were commendable but ineffective for lack of appropriate parameters for their implementation. Arising from the above, it was recommended that for peace to reign, employees should avoid putting all their eggs in one basket, and for unforeseen contingencies such as this novel pandemic, employees should have an extra source of income by going into side businesses like blogging, rentals, online advertising, and investment in stocks with high returns.
  2. Employment generation, industrialization, sound economic policies, provision of basic infrastructure, skill acquisition, apprenticeship scheme and other forms of technical and vocational training should be encouraged in order to reduce the high rate of unemployment in Nigeria.
  3. On the COVID-19 pandemic, pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures on the pandemic’s protocol should be strictly adhered to. Temporally, palliative measures can be given to cushion the effects of the pandemic.

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