An Examination Of Covid-19 And Its Effect On Students, Teachers And School Stakeholders

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An Examination Of Covid-19 And Its Effect On Students, Teachers And School Stakeholders


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

A pandemic is a disease outbreak that spans across countries or continents. It has a greater impact on individuals and takes more lives than an epidemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) classified COVID-19 as a pandemic when it became obvious that the disease was severe and that it was spreading swiftly over a large region(Glowatz, 2020). The stunning and abrupt emergence of the coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) in late 2019 and early 2020 placed countries in a bewildered situation. Nigeria joined other nations of the globe to see a health epidemic in 2020. Economic pandemics are regular in Nigeria, but health pandemics are absolutely not part of her experience(Ihekweazu, 2020). However, COVID-19 was classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in January 2020 as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) (PHEIC). On February 27, 2020, the Federal Ministry of Health reported the confirmation of the first case of coronavirus sickness in Lagos State, Nigeria(Oladejo, 2021). In the same vein, the Minister of Health declared that the Multi-sectoral Coronavirus Preparedness Group led by the Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC) has promptly established its National Emergency Operations Center. Since then, in less than 2 months, Nigeria has witnessed more than 50 cases across the country. Tracing back to prior experiences in Nigeria, some of the economic pandemics Nigeria has encountered include the 2016 recession. The monetary authorities of Nigeria protected the local currency against forced depreciation against the dollar and implemented a managed float foreign exchange regime, which functioned successfully from 2016 to 2019(Viruleg, 2020). In the aftermath of the 2016 recession in Nigeria, it was nearly unanimously agreed that an unexpected and protracted decrease in oil prices was the major reason for the recession in Nigeria(Viruleg, 2020). In recent decades, Nigeria has experienced two economic crises.

The economic crisis of 2009 was a result of the global financial crisis, whereas the economic crisis of 2016 was a result of the abrupt decline in oil prices in the international market. The 2009 recession was driven by a combination of the after-effects of the 2007–8 global financial crisis, inadequate loan underwriting procedures in banks, inefficient risk management techniques, and poor corporate governance of banks (Sanusi, 2010). (Sanusi, 2010). Banks were a key driver of the 2009 economic crisis. The 2016 economic crisis was precipitated by an unanticipated collapse in oil prices, which led to a steep drop in oil revenue, which adversely damaged Nigeria’s foreign reserves (Adeniran and Sidiq, 2018). (Adeniran and Sidiq, 2018). This led to large balance of payment deficits paired with an already high debt burden, which propelled Nigeria into its second recession in a decade. The breakout of pandemic COVID-19 all over the world has upset the educational, political, social, economic, religious, and financial institutions of the whole planet. The world’s main economies such as the US, China, UK, Germany, France, Italy, Japan, and many more are on the edge of collapse. Besides, Stock Markets throughout the world have been pummeled and oil prices have gone off a cliff. In only a week 3.3 million Americans applied for unemployment and a week later another 6.6 million individuals started hunting for work. Also, many specialists on economic and financial affairs have warned about the worsening status of global economic and financial structure. What distinguished the 2020 economic crisis from previous economic crises or recessions in Nigeria was that most economic agents who should have helped revive the economy were unable to do so due to fear of contracting the COVID-19 disease, while others did not engage in economic activities when the government imposed and enforced its social distancing policy and movement lockdown in Abuja, Lagos, and Ogun states on the 30th of May. Ferguson et al. (2020) noted that pandemics are not new and have happened at different phases in human history (Ferguson et al., 2020). (Ferguson et al., 2020). While there have been numerous outbreaks and human tragedies, there has been a noticeable upsurge in the frequency of pandemics after the year 2000 and thereafter. This is notably owing to the rising appearance of viral infections amongst animals (Madhav et al., 2017). (Madhav et al., 2017). Given the growth in the frequency of pandemics, numerous scholars like Garrett (2007), Keogh-Brown et al. (2008) and most recently Madhav et al. (2017) and Fan et al. (2018) contend that a large-scale global pandemic was unavoidable. Ferguson et al. (2020) from the Imperial College London COVID-19 Response Team believe that COVID-19 is the most dangerous incident since the 1918 Spanish Influenza pandemic. Despite the similarities, Barro (2020) believes that the non-pharmaceutical treatments performed during 1918 Spanish Influenza pandemic were not helpful in lowering total fatalities. This was because the interventions were not continued for a sufficiently long period of enough time. He believes that the typical period of school closings and restrictions of public gatherings including hotels was just 36 days, but the mean duration of quarantine/isolation was 18 days (0.05 years) (0.05 years). Barro et al. (2020) predict that, leaving all else equal, the 2.1 percent death rate during the Spanish Influenza pandemic in 1918-1920 would equate to around 150 million fatalities worldwide (relative to the World’s population of 7. 5 billion in 2020) during COVID-19 pandemic. Barro et al. (2020) also show that, on average, the 2.1 percent death rate correlates to 6 percent decrease in GDP and 8 percent reduction in private consumption. According to Jonas(2013), the impact ranges from: avoidance reaction due to social distancing measures (e.g., individuals might forgo consumption and purchases and use of certain goods and services including hotel patronage); small direct costs (e.g., hospitalization and medical costs); larger indirect costs (loss of labor, production), and offsetting and cascading effects (disruption of services, travel and others) (disruption of services, travel and others).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The sudden and inexplicable emergence of the Coronavirus (Covid-19) which strikes the globe in the concluding half of 2019 and early 2020 could best be regarded as an unanticipated work for nations, governments, enterprises, people, and students. Outbreaks of the plague spread around the globe, forcing education, politics and economic activities in many nations of the world to be on hiatus(Viruleg, 2020). Covid-19 infection causes panic, restriction, distress, and mortality to individuals and communities across the globe. Activities of nations were restricted save for the necessities. Organizational institutions as banks, ministries, and schools, were all shut down during the spread of the virus(Principi, 2020).

The economies of nations were in high decline. Private school owners found it difficult to survive during the era of the pandemic since schools were completely shut down to lower the rate of the virus transmission(Bello, 2021). There was no means of revenue. Many teachers were all in their homes with no means of earning because they were not being paid wages. Many teachers had to acquire revenue by engaging in home classes for survival. Throughout this era, students were at home, and most students were unable to participate in online lessons due to their parents’ inability to be financially buoyant enough to provide them with the necessary gadgets for the sessions(Bello, 2021). Those who could not participate in online classrooms were not able to learn, and they fell behind in their studies and academic programs. This research intends to look into the influence of the coronavirus on private school owners, economics, instructors, and pupils.


1.3. Objective of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to examine covid-19 and its effect on students, teachers and school stakeholders. Below are the specific objectives of the study;

  1. Determine whether revenue generation in private schools was hampered by covid-19 pandemic.
  2. Determine whether the covid-19 outbreak negatively affected the finances of school teachers.
  3. Ascertain whether the academic activities of students were disrupted by covid-19 pandemic.

1.4 Research Questions / Hypotheses

The following research questions guide this study:

  1. Was revenue generation of private schools hampered by covid-19 pandemic.
  2. Did covid-19 outbreak negatively affected the finances of school teachers?
  3. Was the academic activities of students disrupted by covid-19 pandemic?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study on the impact of coronavirus on private school owners, economy, teachers and students will be of immense benefit for the government to see the need to prepare for alternative response measures to emergencies in the country counting from the rate of hazards the sudden outbreak of the Covid-19 wrecked on the country and all the sectors of the economy. Also, the study will benefit educational policy makers to encourage e-learning in all the states of the federation, both in the primary, secondary, and tertiary institutions. This study will also be of significance to private school owners, teachers, students and the general public by bringing to their notice the kind of impact the outbreak of covid-19 have on the educational system of Nigeria and the lives of the teachers and students. Furthermore, this study will add to existing literature on this area of research and as a reference material to researchers and students who might carry out further research on this topic or related domain.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The study covers covid-19 and its effect on students, teachers and school stakeholders, with specific attention to whether revenue generation in private schools was hampered by covid-19 pandemic, whether the covid-19 outbreak negatively affected the finances of school teachers, and whether the academic activities of students were disrupted by covid-19 pandemic.

The study respondents will be obtained from three secondary schools in Owerri Imo State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.8 Definition of Terms

COVID-19:

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is defined as illness caused by a novel corona virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; formerly called 2019-CoV), which was first identified amid an outbreak of respiratory illness cases in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China.


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