An Examination Of Academic Performance Of Married Women Students In Nigerian Higher Education

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An Examination Of Academic Performance Of Married Women Students In Nigerian Higher Education


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine academic performance of married women students in Nigerian higher education using University of Lagos as a case study. The study was specifically set to find out if married student women are sound in their academic performance, find out the effect of marriage on the academic performance of married women, and find out the factors that affect married women student in their academic pursuit. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of married women students of University of Lagos. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that marriage has a significant effect on the academic performance of married women as it compromises their overall development, it makes them socially isolated with little or no education, it affects their skills and opportunities for employment and self-realization and it makes them susceptible to poor academic achievement. Furthermore, the study revealed that the factors that affects married women student in their academic pursuit includes:financial problem, educational background or husband and parents; cultural practices, and problem of combining motherhood and education. Therefore, it is recommended that Higher education institutions in Nigeria should introduce courses in women studies and related courses. This would help to further increase the interest of women students in higher education, thereby increasing their enrolment and possibly improving their academic performance. To mention but few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The world’s population is projected to be 6.8 billion people (Population Reference Bureau, 2010). Women account for more than half of this total and account for more than 70% of the total.They are uneducated and impoverished (Haese & Kirsten, 2006). Those obtaining education at different levels, particularly at the higher level, are restricted or handicapped.in a variety of ways, putting good academic achievement out of reach for many.Numerous people live in a life that is a complicated web of many roles and many duties that need the typical woman to play “various roles” at different times in order to fulfill her obligations.her family’s requirements These roles have been classified theoretically as reproductive, productive, and communal roles (Bakare-Yusuf, 2003, Haese & Kirsten, 2006). Bakare-Yusuf, like many other feminist academics, contends that women, both now and in the future, must be empowered.in the past, had critical reproductive and producing responsibilities that aided patriarchal economic as well as productive domination Women’s roles are evolving all across the globe, but not always for the better. The most visible example of this is their contribution to economic development, but due to limitations resulting from stagnancy or little progress being made in women’s education, that is, enrolment rate and academic performance in tertiary institutions of learning, women, and particularly married women, have yet to achieve self-fulfilment and achieve in all aspects of life. In this respect, Ossat (2005) sees higher education for women as both an accomplishment and a challenge. The federal government of Nigeria, in collaboration with UNICEF, released the results of a study of the condition of women and children in Nigeria in May 2002. Education and women’s development were two major topics on which the spotlight was shone, and they were vigorously debated. Both are seen to be inseparable and complimentary. A separate research done in South Africa found that higher education – of any kind, including women – has been under significant pressure to be more responsive to the marketplace and to create new types of knowledge workers (Jansen, 2001).

Women work at home, but the majority of them are not compensated for their efforts. Furthermore, since they are underpaid in their different occupations, Nigerian women are among the poorest in Africa and the developing world. They are also less empowered, making it harder for them to fulfill their duties and roles at home (Potokri, 2010), in the workplace, and in society as a whole efficiently and effectively due to the poorly linked variables: women, education, and development. To be more specific, higher education for a married woman cannot be overlooked, quantified, or overstated. Given its importance, no African country, arguably, does not want to increase the educational participation of women in tertiary institutions of learning, or, better yet, improve their academic performance. Higher education for women is important, and it cannot be overstated. Although most nations regard higher education for women to be a desired development tool, its present under-provision is a significant impediment to economic, social, mental, and political growth. As a result, low female participation and enrolment in higher education have been associated with low economic productivity, the prevalence of preventable diseases, malnutrition, population growth, and mass poverty (Bolarin, 2005). Similarly, Dike (2002) finds that more education provides women a better understanding of how to minimize hazards in life and alter their behavior. Several studies have documented the numerous barriers to women’s participation, enrollment, and academic performance, as well as their completion of their education (Howard, 2001; Jamil, 2003). These impediments stem from policy, infrastructure, household and family resources, and community beliefs and practices. According to Jamil (2003), many significant obstacles to women’s education are not legally within the boundaries or obligation of the government or the education sector. Household conditions and community attitudes and practices are examples of barriers that may not be addressed by government leadership and action yet have a significant impact on women’s education. He goes on to say that the connection is indirect and susceptible to influence rather than control. However, although policy, school-related infrastructure, and education and instruction may be difficult to alter, they are under the mandate and organizational authority of the government (Jamil, 2003; USAID, 2000). Supporting Jamil’s viewpoint, Administrator J Brandy stated at the USAID Symposium on Girls Education (2000): “It is obvious to say that these barriers affect female students enrolment and completion rates; and each is related to the others, constituting parts of an interlocking social system that includes national and local, private and public, and group and individual dimensions.” Lips (1999) contends that if we are to effectively address the challenges of women’s education and economic development, of educating women to assume their due position in society, a number of issues must be addressed, one of which is the importance of women’s higher education. Furthermore, she asserts that, among other things, wage equality, the “glass ceiling,” work-family balance, and the feminization of poverty must be addressed in order to promote and inspire women to seek higher education.


1.2 Statement of Research Problem

In Nigerian culture, marriage is a significant cultural, traditional, and religious rite. Especially for ladies and young girls. According to data from the CBN (2000) study. In Nigeria, 86.6 percent of women are married, 3.7 percent are widowed, and 5.2 percent are divorced.% of the population is divorced or separated. Furthermore, cultural behaviors separate a large number of people. women with advanced degrees A common saying in Nigeria is that “women’s education stops in the kitchen,” indicating that education is not beneficial to them; in other words, education is not intended for them. When they marry, their condition worsens. Women’s prospects of continuing their education are very low at that time. Women, particularly married women, are confined to the kitchen in Nigeria, where their primary duty is childbirth. As a result, the Nigerian female infant is mentally programmed from infancy to see herself as a future housewife and mother of children. In a nutshell, married women are confined to the house, mainly because it is assumed that their husbands would provide all of their requirements. As a result, higher education for women is seen as ineffective and a waste of time, money, and resources in general.

Furthermore, elders and traditional chiefs see it as a doorway to prostitution and non-submissiveness among women, as well as the loss of their marriage chances. To put it simply, certain traditional chiefs argue that it pushes women beyond the boundaries of tradition and culture, thus empowering them They act and live in ways that contradict established traditions, norms, and beliefs. As a result of this, it is It is often assumed that once married and living in their husband’s home, women have no rights.

They have a desire for further education and are capable of coping with any kind or style of education they have received. prior to marriage Elders and traditional leaders (male) believe that elementary and secondary education are essential. At most, education is sufficient for a married woman to manage the business of her household.anticipated from her In principle, higher education, particularly university, is a place of equal opportunity today. This was not the situation a century ago, and anybody who advocated for a university education for women, much alone married women, was considered crazy. It was generally assumed that greater education for women would result in brain fever, sterility, and even death, implying that they would be unable to deal with such studies. In light of the above, most married women made little or no attempt to enroll in higher education; this was made much more difficult for them when admission rules and procedures became more stringent. Some colleges and higher institutes of learning did not accept married women since their programs did not favor them. For instance, Ewha Women’s University in For 57 years, married female students in South Korea were barred from attending, until the restriction was recently removed. Women were first admitted to Makerere University in Uganda in 1945. One element of the Millennium Development Goals that must not be overlooked if women are to be genuinely empowered is equal educational opportunities at all levels.

The Nigerian government has attempted to progress toward this objective, but cultural traditions and religion, among other things, have severely hampered its attempts. At this point, it is essential to examine not just the involvement of married women in higher education, but also how those who are studying are doing academically.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of this study is to examine the academic performance of married women students in Nigerian higher education. The study will specifically assess the objectives below;

  1. To find out if married student women are sound in their academic performance
  2. To find out the effect of marriage on the academic performance of married women
  3. To find out the factors that affect married women student in their academic pursuit
    1. Financial problem,
    2. Educational background or husband and parents,
    3. Cultural practices,
    4. Psychological problem;
    5. Problem of combining motherhood and education,
    6. Distance of their home to higher education institution where they are studying

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be anchored by the following question;

  1. Are married student women sound in their academic performance?
  2. What are the effect of marriage on the academic performance of married women?
  3. What are the factors that affect married women student in their academic pursuit?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There are no factors that affect married women student in their academic pursuit.
  • Ha: There are factors that affect married women student in their academic pursuit

1.6 Significance of the Study

The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:

  1. This study will examine the Academic Performance Of Married Women Students In Nigerian Higher Education
  2. The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, ministry of education and academia

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will examine An Examination Of Academic Performance Of Married Women Students In Nigerian Higher Education. Hence , will be delimited to married women student in south eastern part of Nigeria


1.8 Limitations of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.8 Definition of Terms

Academic Performance:

The measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects.

Married Women:

A wife or widow of a viscount. type of: better half, married person, mate, partner, spouse. a person’s partner in marriage

Higher Institution:

An educational institution of collegiate or more advanced grade.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on academic performance of married women students in Nigerian higher education using University of Lagos as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine academic performance of married women students in Nigerian higher education using University of Lagos as a case study. Specifically the study was set to find out if married student women are sound in their academic performance, find out the effect of marriage on the academic performance of married women, and find out the factors that affect married women student in their academic pursuit.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are married women students of University of Lagos.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion

  1. Married student women are not sound in their academic performance.
  2. Marriage has a significant effect on the academic performance of married women as it compromises their overall development, it makes them socially isolated with little or no education, it affects their skills and opportunities for employment and self-realization and it makes them susceptible to poor academic achievement
  3. The factors that affects married women student in their academic pursuit includes:financial problem, educational background or husband and parents; cultural practices, and problem of combining motherhood and education.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. Higher education institutions in Nigeria should introduce courses in women studies and related courses. This would help to further increase the interest of women students in higher education, thereby increasing their enrolment and possibly improving their academic performance.
  2. Higher education institutions should set up support structures for women students studying at higher education institutions. For instance, women‟s centres for complaints, and guidance and counselling units; these structures would provide motivation and equip women with coping strategies for studying in higher education.
  3. Men should discard the belief that women‟s education ends in the kitchen and that men are the breadwinners of the family. Men should regard their wives as co-breadwinners; by so doing, they will not deprive them of higher education, but support them in it. While it is recommended that men should discard this belief, men should also consider the possibility of losing their jobs or being retired. In such an event, women emerge as the breadwinners, either temporarily or otherwise. This is a position that women are more than able to fill if they are not deprived of higher education.

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