An Evaluation Of The Usage Of Electronic Calculators And Its Effect On Mathematics Learning Outcomes Of Female Students

Mathematics Education Project Material

An Evaluation Of The Usage Of Electronic Calculators And Its Effect On Mathematics Learning Outcomes Of Female Students


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the usage of electronic calculators and its effect on mathematics learning outcomes of female students using some selected Girls secondary schools in Eleme, Rivers state as a case study. The study was carried out to determine the extent of electronic calculators usage among female students in secondary schools, determine whether the use of electronic calculators simplify the learning of mathematics computations among female students in secondary schools, determine whether the use of electronic calculators enhances female students’ learning outcome in Mathematics, and determine whether there is a significant difference between the achievement scores of female students taught using calculators and those without calculators. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of mathematics teachers of some selected Girls secondary schools in Eleme, Rivers state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. The result of the findings reveals that there is a high usage of electronic calculators among female students in secondary schools. The study also revealed that the use of electronic calculators enhances female students’ learning outcome in Mathematics. Therefore, it is recommended that schools should strongly encourage the use of calculators in all aspects of mathematical instructional including the development of mathematical concepts and the acquisition of computational skill. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The importance of mathematics in any country’s development cannot be overstated. According to Demana and Waits (2011), Science, Technology, and Mathematics Education (STME) has long been seen as the yardstick by which to measure a country’s social, economic, and geopolitical progress. Mathematics is a branch of science that deals with ideas like amount, structure, space, and change. Mathematics has progressed beyond counting, computation, and measuring to be integrated into many sectors such as science, health, economics, and everyday life through abstract reasoning and logic. Mathematics theories were established to address issues in trade, to explain numerical connections, to measure land, and to anticipate celestial phenomena.

Today, mathematics is taught in all industrialized nations’ educational systems. Students between the ages of five and seven are usually taught addition and subtraction in most schools. As they proceed through the grades, students take mathematics courses that focus on various subdivisions of mathematics. The major branches of mathematics, such as algebra, geometry, and calculus, will have been taught by the time the student graduates from high school or any secondary education institution (Aminu, 2015).

According to Akinsola and Ogunleye (2013), because mathematics encompasses all aspects of human life, it is unquestionably important in education to help students and people from all walks of life perform daily tasks efficiently and become productive, well-informed, functional, independent individuals and members of a society, thus luring curriculum planners to develop new methods of instruction to enable effective teaching-learning of mathematics that covers all aspects of human life, thus luring curriculum planners to develop new methods of instruction to enable effective teaching Shuard (2012) claims that using media in the classroom inspires students by grabbing their attention and piqueing their interest in the subject. In addition to integrating learners vicariously but meaningfully in the learning experience, media also explains and illustrates subject content and performance skills, as well as providing opportunities for self-analysis of individual performance and behavior, leading to the invention of innovative calculating devices that aided in the expansion of mathematical concepts’ understanding.

NCTM (1986), referenced in Stacey (2004), endorsed “integration of the calculator into the school mathematics program at all grade levels in classwork, homework, and evaluation” in a position statement on calculator use in the classroom. NCTM also recommended that all students be allowed to use calculators so that they can focus on the problem-solving process rather than the calculations that come with it, gain access to mathematics beyond their level of computational skill, and perform tedious computations that arise when working with real data in problem-solving situations. Many students find that entering even easy problems into the calculator is easier and faster than solving the issue in their brains. Some calculators are sufficiently strong that they can solve complicated calculus problems and provide an instantaneous response. Because electronic prices are continually lowering, tiny, quick, and powerful calculators are widely available. As a result, many students contend that they will have access to a calculator in some form or another at all times. Computers are particularly ubiquitous in the office, and most cellular phones have a calculator. Microsoft Excel, as well as other spreadsheet applications, makes financial computations fairly simple. Why would anyone need to study mathematics without the help of a calculator with all of these wonderful tools? As a result, the purpose of this study is to assess the use of electronic calculators and their impact on female students’ subsequent mathematics learning results.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Scientific calculators have become popular as instruments for doing mathematical calculations and manipulations. This was done to save time while solving mathematical problems and to help student perform better. In their study, Odili and Vincent (2011) found calculators to be useful aids in the problem-solving process. Students who use calculators have “superior problem-solving skills and substantially better attitudes toward mathematics” when they leave school.

On the contrary, professionals such as Obodo, (2010), Florence, and Odera, (2011), however, wondered if the calculator had become a debilitating rather than an enabling gadget at the turn of the twenty-first century. This is because they discovered that using calculators in math class might influence a student’s understanding of mathematical concepts. Furthermore, students may not need to master some basic operations and methodologies since the calculator will do the work for them. Rather of learning multiplication tables for quick memory, a student may just type an equation into the calculator and get the proper result.

According to Derringer (2007), these student are unlikely to carry a calculator with them at all times of their lifetimes. It is unavoidable that these pupils will be required to do mathematical operations without the help of a calculator at some time, and they may be unable to do so. This has prompted concerns about the possible contribution of scientific calculators to secondary school mathematics teaching and learning (benefits). It’s also unclear what difficulties teachers and students would experience while employing scientific calculators in mathematics. This study intends to give an evaluation of the use of electronic calculators and its influence on mathematics learning outcomes of female students based on variations in perspectives on the importance of calculator usage on student academic accomplishment.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to evaluate the usage of electronic calculators and its effect on mathematics learning outcomes of female students.

Specifically the study seeks:

  1. Determine the extent of electronic calculators usage among female students in secondary schools.
  2. Determine whether the use of electronic calculators simplify the learning of mathematics computations among female students in secondary schools.
  3. Determine whether the use of electronic calculators enhances female students’ learning outcome in Mathematics.
  4. Determine whether there is a significant difference between the achievement scores of female students taught using calculators and those without calculators.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study

  1. What is the extent of electronic calculators usage among female students in secondary schools?
  2. Does the use of electronic calculators simplify the learning of mathematics computations among female students in secondary schools?
  3. Does the use of electronic calculators enhances female students’ learning outcome in Mathematics.
  4. Is there is a significant difference between the achievement scores of female students taught using calculators and those without calculators?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of students taught using calculators and those without calculators.
  • Ha: There is a significant difference between the mean achievement scores of students taught using calculators and those without calculators.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Findings from the study will provide a framework for government, curriculum planner, stakeholders in education to come up with strategies on how to improve further mathematics instruction. The result of the study will reveal the pros and cons associated to electronic calculator usage during mathematics instruction hence will be useful to teachers as it emphasizes the need fro them to improve teaching method and utilize instructional strategies so as to ensure effective teaching and learning of further mathematics in secondary schools. Empirically, the study will contribute to the general body of knowledge and serve as a reference material to both scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on an evaluation of usage of electronic calculators and its effect on mathematics learning outcomes of female students. The study will focus on the potential negative ramifications of using calculators instead of teaching students the fundamentals of mathematics. The study is however delimited to selected Girls secondary schools in Rivers State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other secondary schools. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Calculator:

Is a mechanical, electromechanical or electronic device that performs arithmetic operations automatically.

Teaching:

Is the process of attending to people’s needs, experiences and feelings, and making specific interventions to help them learn particular things.

Learning:

Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, attitudes, and preferences.

Mathematics:

Mathematics is the study of quantity, structure, space and change. Also Mathematics evolved from counting, calculation, measurement and the systematic study of the shapes and motion of physical objects.

Learning Outcome:

Learning outcomes are statements that describe the knowledge or skills students should acquire by the end of a particular assignment, class, course, or program, and help students understand why that knowledge and those skills will be useful to them.

Academic Achievement:

The word academic pertains to school subjects or to fields of liberal arts or to the sphere of ideas and abstraction, while achievement denotes knowledge attained or skills developed by students, usually in the schools, measured by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the usage of electronic calculators and its effect on mathematics learning outcomes of female students using some selected Girls secondary schools in Eleme, Rivers state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the usage of electronic calculators and its effect on mathematics learning outcomes of female students using some selected Girls secondary schools in Eleme, Rivers state as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to determine the extent of electronic calculators usage among female students in secondary schools, determine whether the use of electronic calculators simplify the learning of mathematics computations among female students in secondary schools, determine whether the use of electronic calculators enhances female students’ learning outcome in Mathematics, and determine whether there is a significant difference between the achievement scores of female students taught using calculators and those without calculators.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were mathematics teachers of some selected Girls secondary schools in Eleme, Rivers state.


5.3 Conclusions

The use of calculators helps students to obtained high scores in examinations, compute efficiently and accurately.

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. There is a high usage of electronic calculators among female students in secondary schools.
  2. The use of electronic calculators helps to simplify the learning of mathematical computations among female students in secondary schools.
  3. The use of electronic calculators enhances female students’ learning outcome in Mathematics.
  4. Evidently, there is a significant difference between the achievement scores of female students taught using calculators and those without calculators.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. For progress to be made in the use of calculators in a mathematics classes, major financial resources must be made for the acquisition of more calculators for students to use.
  2. An awareness campaign has to be initialed and executed by the stakeholders concerning the effective use of calculators in the teaching and learning of mathematics and other related disciplines.
  3. Schools should strongly encourage the use of calculators in all aspects of mathematical instructional including the development of mathematical concepts and the acquisition of computational skill.

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