An Evaluation Of Urban Housing Problems In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Ibadan, Oyo State)
Housing problems on earth can be traced to the time when God evicted Adam and Eve from the garden of Eden, because of their sin. This project is aimed at evaluating housing problems in Ibadan, Oyo state. Many theories were reviewed in other to get more facts on this research work. Data were collected by administering questionnaires to selected population located in Sango East of Ibadan. The researcher identified the different types of housing and housing problem in the study area, factors that constitute housing problem in the study area and the strategies that can be employed to check or minimize the problems.
More also, for the critical analysis and presentation, table were used for clear explanation of the subject matter. To give the work a final touch, finding on the negligence of the concerned local government, the necessary stakeholder and appropriate provision of facilities, lacking in the area were exposed, due to this various procedure of urban policies were itemized and explained, also Government have been advised on poverty alleviation programmes and also to educate the people living in the study area the effect and dangers in living in a bad housing to give the case study a new look of a development.
Table of Contents
- Tittle Page
- Table of contents
- List of table
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of Problem
- 1.3 Aim and Objectives
- 1.4 Significance of Study
- 1.5 Scope of Study
- 1.6 Limitation of Study
- 1.7 Study Area
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Housing Concept
- 2.2 Housing Situation in Nigeria
- 2.3 Importance of Housing And Shelter
- 2.4 Characteristics of Housing
- 2.5 Rural and Urban Housing in Nigeria
- 2.6. Housing Finance
- 2.7 Housing Problems in Brief
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Data Types And Sources
- 3.3 Sample And Sampling Techniques
- 3.4 Research Population
- 3.5 Method Of Data Collection
- 3.6 Method Of Data Analysis
4.0 Data Interpretation and Analysis of Result
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Accessing Existing Housing And Infrastructures
- 4.3 Examining The Housing Condition In The Study Area
- 4.4 Housing Problems In The Study Area
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
List Of Tables
- Table 1: Assessment of Housing Provided in the Study Area
- Table 2: Age of Occupiers
- Table 3: Housing Types
- Table 4A: Facilities / Sources Provided
- Table 4B: Availability of Refuse Collection System
- Table4C: Water Supply Connection
- Table 4D: Regularity of Water Supply
- Table 4E: Other Means of Water Supply
- Table 4F : Availability of Electricity Supply
- Table 4G: Other Means of Electricity Supply
- Table 4H: Bathroom Types
- Table 4I : Toilet Types Provided
- Table 5: Age of the Properties in the Study Area
- Table 6: Roof Materials Used in the Study Area
- Table 7: Floor Finishes in the Area
- Table 8: Ceiling Finishes
- Table 9: General Condition of the Houses
- Table 10: Problems Facing the Occupier
1.1. Background of the Study
Housing is the permanently shelter for human habitation. Because shelter is necessary to everyone, the problem of providing adequate housing has long been a concern, no only of individuals, but to government as well. Thus, the history of housing is inseparable from the social, economic and political development of mankind
All over the world, it is a widely acknowledge fact that shelter is one of the most basic human needs suffice it to say that inspite of its importance, it is one of the problem that has been given the least attention in both urban and rural areas of the country.
The genesis of housing problems in Nigeria dated back to colonial government failed to evolve and articulate housing programme beyond the Government Reserved Areas (GRA).
The colonial era has been a period of self centeredness on the part of the colonial masters as far as social housing in Nigeria was concerned. Studies have shown that the colonial masters built empires for themselves in the so- called Europeans quarters and Government Reserved Areas (GRA). This was necessitated partly by the colonial masters quest for quiet residentials areas and partly for their desire for class and executive life. The colonial masters never considered it necessary to provide decent housing for their black counterparts, but were forced to do so when there was a threat to their lives following to outbreak of an epidemies. A case in mind was that of Lagos Executives Development Board, which was established in 1928 as a result of the destructive effect of the bubonic plaque, and was aimed at the clearing the slums in Lagos, being the area suspected to be epidemic by promoters. An attempts was further made by colonial master to provide housing for the civil servants under a plan tagged “African Staff Housing Scheme” that was tagged to be facilitated by Nigeria building society.
In post-colonial Era, sequel to Nigerian Independence in 1960, emphasis was placed on five-yearly development plan as a vehicle for economic growth, The first and second national Development plan covering the period 1960-1970 did not give housing any significant place until 1972 when during the extended second National Development Plan, housing scheme under which government was to build 54000 housing unit by the end of 1979. Under third National Development Plan, which covered the period of 1975 -1980 government took a giant stride to address the
National housing deficit of the country by engaging in social housing provision.
During the period a rent panel was set up to review the level in the country. This marked the first attempt by government to recognize the housing problem of the less previledge people of Nigeria who has lost all sense of dignity as well as economic worth as citizen of an oil rich country. The forth National Development plan, which covered the period 1980-1985 contained the most significant policy that addressed that nations housing problem and an overriding objectives of improving the overall quantity and quality of housing for all income, groups both in rural and urban especially.
1.2 Statement of Problem.
The pooled effect of high population upsurge and urbanization in a declining economy has thrown Nigeria into serious housing problems, Ironically, the low-income groups who constitute the majority in the society are the most affected by the finance menance.
The problems of housing shortage grow worse by the day in many developing nations including Nigeria. Conceivably, a major trait of housing crisis notable in urban centres in most developing nations is that of inadequate supply relative to demand (Olotuah, 2000).
The shortage, in both quantitative and qualitative terms, is more acute in urban centres. Omijinmi (2000) observed that people that sleep in indecent in urban Nigeria are more than people who sleep in decent houses; Thus, it is assertive that there is inadequacy in population in Nigeria. (Arayela 2003)
The causes of this dearth in housing are numerous, High construction cost is found to be present in all countries, albeit in varying degree of significance (Adedeji 2007).
Afolayan (1987) attributes the high cost of construction rate in economy, high space and quality standard adopted by designer and construction
1.3. Aim and Objectives.
The aim of this study is to assess and evaluate housing problems in Nigeria with special reference Ibadan city, Oyo State.
The specific objectives for this study are:
- To set out strategy for minimizing housing problems in Nigeria.
- To identify ways of improving housing by developing and sustaining the political will of government for provision of housing for Ibadan people.
- To ascertain the extents in which strengthening all existing public institution s involve in housing delivery at the state level will affect the housing delivery
- To set out strategy of encouraging and promoting active participation of other tiers of government in housing delivery.
1.4. Significance of the Study.
The study findings will be of benefit to the estate surveyor and valuer and property owners; as will reveal the important strategies necessary for overcoming the challenges before them. The industry stakeholders such as the client, Architect, Estate Surveyor and Valuer, Builder and government will better understand the constraints and also assist in mapping out strategies that will aid their development.
The government and stakeholders will be better informed through study recommendation of policy which will assist the property managers and owner in boosting their ability and capacity to quality housing delivery process.
Moreover, the project research can as well be a guide for the incoming student who want to research on housing or any matter relating to housing.
1.5. Scope of Study.
The scope of this study is based on evaluating of urban housing problems in Ibadan of Oyo state. But in view of the wide nature of the research topic, the study will focus mainly on Ibadan metropolis.
1.6. Limitation of Study.
In the course of this research work, some factors hindered the free flow of work such as inadequate finance, level of illiteracy from the public, non release of vital document or information in the respective local government and limited time available for this research work and cost of preparation.
1.7. Study Area.
Oyo State cover approximately an area of 28,458 kilometers and is ranked 14th by size, it is bounded in the south by Ogun state in the north by kwara state, in the west it is partly bounded by Ogun state and partly by the republic of Benin, while in the East by Osun State.
Oyo State contain a number of natural features including the old national pack. The climate is equatorial notably with dry and wet season with relatively high humidity. The dry season last from November to march while the wet starts from April and ends in October Average daily temperature ranges between 25c(77.00 F) and 35 c (95.00 F) almost through the year.
Oyo State is located in the south west region of Nigeria, latitude 8 degree and longitude 4 degree East bisect state into four nearly equal parts. The people of oyo state are Yoruba with common ancestor in oduduwa within the state however, there are sub-ethnic group with distinct dialect peculiarities. The people of Oyo state may be divided into five broad groups, viz Ibadan, Ibarapas, Oyo Oke Ogun and Ogbomosos.
1.8. Definition of Terms.
Housing is a permanent shelter for human habitation, or house and other building where people lives. OR Housing can means a dwelling that enders a bundle of services which ranges from the units to bases from which economic activities can be pursued.
Can be defined as the outcome of socia, economic and political development that leads to urban concentration and growth of large cities, changes in land use and transformation from rural to metropolitan pattern of organization and governance.
3. Urban Area:
Is an area where sociol-economic activities take place and also identified with such use like residential, commercial, individual, recreational centre and many others.
Is a structure that protects the occupants from environmental factors and dangers. Shelter is universally acknowledged as one of the most basic human needs, with a profound impact on the lifestyles, happiness as well as productivity of individual.
5. Public Housing:
Is the housing embacked upon by the government or government organization relating to housing e.g Federal Housing Authority(FHA) and state Housing corporations. The aim of public involvement in the housing is to make houses available to the masses at affordable cost. The objective is contrary to that of private developers whose aim is to profit maximization.
6. Private Housing:
Can be defined as when private organization or an individual embanked on housing programmes with the aim of making profit for investing in such venture.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of Findings
The following summary of findings during the field work are hereby presented according to the study’s objectives.
(A) The Housing and Infrastructural Facilities
It was confirmed that the case study area enjoys a better provision of housing units and infrastructural facilities. More tenement buildings 2- bedrooms and 3 bedrooms bungalow are sufficiently provided. There is a problems of refuse disposal /collection system however, both the water and the electricity supplies are of good rating. Toilet facilities are very good.
(B) Housing Condition
This revealed that this buildings are almost within their middle age lifecycle. The roofing materials, floors, walls finishing’s and the ceiling materials used are very decent, however the general conditions of the buildings shows 50.5% good, 39.5% fair and 10% bad.
(C) Housing Problems
The occupier’s confirmed some problems facing them and the most of them is lack of refuse disposal points. Thereafter we have bad accessibility, inadequate security within the neighborhood, inadequate maintenance of the buildings and lack of drainage as other major problems. The least problematic issue is on pipe borne water problem.
Assessment of housing provision in any locality is a tedious research that can take more than a session. Because of its peculiarity in the African culture (i.e where people do not belief in good and prompt maintenance of properties. This study have really exposed the housing situation in Ibadan metropolis especially in the selected area.
In view of the above findings the following recommendation are made.
Having considered the effectiveness assessment of urban housing problems in Oyo state Nigeria, as previously explained and analysed in the last chapters.
It is a good practice to recommend some useful measures that need to be taken in order to achieve more positive effect on housing management, they as follow:
- Government should show more concern on the provision those facilities that were tackling, example of this is the refusal point and its collection
- Any housing provision is capital – intensive programme, hence the government should encourage financial institution to offer credit for housing development at a lest rate of interest.
- Building materials were noticed to be costly, hence government should encourage local factories to be providing building materials by reducing taxes charges on manufacturing industries.
- Each state government also should be encourage to establish mortgage institutions that can promote housing development for over increasing population.
- The occupier also should be encourage to be doing community work say at least one Saturday in a month by doin some general neighborhood work e.g erosion control and preparation of channelization.
- Lastly, our professionals, such as architect should be encourage to design simple indigenous housing design that can utilize local building materials.
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