Evaluation Of Tricycle As Public Transport System In An Urban Area (A Case Study Of Ipata-Sango, Ilorin)

Project and Seminar Material for Civil and Environmental Engineering

Evaluation Of Tricycle As Public Transport System In An Urban Area (A Case Study Of Ipata-Sango, Ilorin)


This project goes into detailed evaluation of tricycle as public means of transport system in an urban area with a particular reference to Ipata-Sango, Ilorin metropolis selected as the case study. The project reviews existing literature on Tricycle ( Keke Napep) within Ipata-Sango, Ilorin. Inclusive are the circumstances that led to the invention of this medium as well as the drawbacks encounter in the past. However the finding of the research work base on the evaluation of Tricycle as public means of transport system indicates the present operational but attached to this are some few shortcomings caused by both Kwara State Government, the Tricycle transport agency and tricyclists or operators. Also is the shortcoming of management and staff leading to inefficiency in the system. With the full study on all these drawbacks, it`s now suggested that the running of the corporation should be given to competent personnel base on merits and qualifications with less intervention by the State Government into the financial and operational capabilities. In addition, the management/staff is suggested to be encouraged and developed by giving incentives and training in their course of service years. Above all the research work poses to be more effective in planning and monitoring all aspect of Safety. If it is done continuosly, therefore it serves a means of redressing areas where there are deficiencies.

Table of Contents

  • Pages
  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of contents
  • List of tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Statement of the problem
  • 1.2 Aim and Objectives of the study
  • 1.3 Justification of the theory
  • 1.4 Scope of the study
  • 1.5 Description of the study area
  • 1.6 Proposed Methodology

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Tricycle as a mode of transportation
  • 2.2 Importance of Tricycle (Keke Napep) as a mode of public transport in an urban area
  • 2.3 Short coming of Tricycle
  • 2.4 The importance of wearing helmet while riding a Tricycle
  • 2.5 Requirement to be met by helmet used by Keke Napep riders (Tricyclist)

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Oral Interview
  • 3.2 Issuing of Questionnaire
  • 3.3 Field Work
  • 3.4 Kwara State Tricycle operation (Control Safety E.T.C) laws 2010

Chapter Four

4.0 Analysis and Discussion of result

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Oral Interview
  • 4.3 Questionnaire
  • 4.4 Field Work
  • Characteristic of operators (Tricyclist)
  • Challenges or factors militating against the smooth running of the trade

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

List of Tables

  • Table 4.1: Details of the result from the Oral interview
  • Table 4.2: Result from the questionnaire distributed
  • Table 4.3: Ages of respondent within Ipata-Sango, Ilorin
  • Table 4.4: Reason for operating Tricycle within the various streets
  • Table 4.5: Educational attainment of respondents
  • Table 4.6: Monthly income of the operators within the various Street.

List of Plates

  • Plate 4.1: Ipata road, Ilorin
  • Plate 4.2: Amilegbe-Ipata road, Ilorin
  • Plate 4.3: Oke andi junction, Ilorin

List of Figure

  • Figure 1.1 Description of Case Study

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

The inability of the conventional modes of transport such as Trains,buses, cars, Okada and ferry services to meet transportation demand owing to fleet depletion and high operational cost caused by down turn in economy,resulting in high record of accident from Okada motor cycles has led to unplanned emergence of para transit or non conventional mode of transportation popularly known as KEKE NAPEP (tricycle).

Tricycle refers to a commercial device where tricycle riders carry passengers for hire. The name TRICYCLE is as a result of the machine being a pedal driven vehicle with two wheel at the back and a wheel at front. KEKE NAPEP is known for it comfort ability and safety compare to Okada motorcycle. Kekenapep (Tricycle) became more useful and indispensable as soon as the federal government bound Okada motorcycle across several states in the country. In an ironic metaphor, the first group of tricycle transporters was then given the name “KEKE NAPEP.” Because of the comic irony of this name being used for tricycles and popularity of the manufacture which is India, the name Keke napep for commercial tricycle was never to be for gotten and eventually become as popular as it is okay.

1.1 Statement of the Problem

The primary objective of most transport system is to make profit. This is because profit yield growth, survival and continuity in business. The various transport corporations recognize this fact. Over the years and prior to this contemporary age, a lot of factors had challenged the profitability of this transport system. Travelers across the nation have found it difficult to convey considerable goods which cannot be carried by lorry as a result of it meager nature and lesser weight, on several occasion business men and travelers are usually stranded and effectually get frustrated until the invention of this so called TRICYCLE which have gone a long way to assist the travelers and transporters in conveying the goods from the manufacturers and sites to their destination comfortably and safely compare to Okada motorcycle. The study therefore examines the following problems;

  1. What are the motives for establishing Tricycle as public transport system in Nigeria and subsequently in Kwara State?
  2. To what extent are these motives being achieved?

1.2 Aim of the Study

  1. The aim of this project is to evaluate Tricycle as public transport system in an urban area within Ipata-Sango

1.3 Objectives of the Study

  1. To assist the effectiveness of tricycle compare to other means of public transport system.
  2. To determine the significance of tricycle compare to other means of public transport

1.3 Justification of the Theory

Evaluation of tricycle as a public means of transport is considered worthy of study because of the inability of travelers to convey their goods and produce from the market and farm including sites to their destination. Also a lot of Okada motorcycles multiply on the various roads without helping in conveying of goods and even safety entirely especially within Ipata-Sango Ilorin. Therefore, to assist the public especially in the aspect of safety and transportation of goods, there is a need to study in to the evaluation of tricycle as a public means of transportation in an urban area.

1.4 Scope of the Study

This study is limited to Ipata-Sango, Ilorin metropolis. The major factor considered here is

  1. Avoidance of overloading
  2. Adherence to the approved speed limit
  3. Abstains from drunkenness
  4. Avoidance of rough riding
  5. Ensuring the tricycles are protected with the mini canopy(water proof) for safety
  6. We also focus on the plate number and uniformity of the vehicles colour
  7. The total number of passengers patronizing tricycle.
The Passengers Challenges

All passengers are likely to encounter one form of challenges or the other. In the course of my research, I observed that the passengers usually encounter diverse forms of challenges such as;

i. Exposure to Rainfall:

In most cases, the build up of the TRICYCLE (Keke Napep) makes the passengers vulnerable to external forces such as rainfall and for this reason most of the passenger found it uncomfortable to board because they usually get wet when travelling.

ii. Excessive Wind Pressure:

The two sides of the Tricycle is obviously opened with no doors unlike vehicles that are properly secured. This opening usually expose the passengers to high wind pressure which may subsequently result to illness especially when the vehicle is on high speed.

iii. Uncomfortability :

on several occasions, the passengers seat at both front and back are usually tight as a result of variation in size and shape of the passengers. The bigger the passengers, the more tight and uncomfortable they feel while travelling.

iv. Accident:

The kind of accident associated with this form of Transportation (KEKE NAPEP) is usually fatal, though they seems to be very rare on local road. This factor also discourage some passengers from travelling by Tricycles.

1.5 Description of Study Area (Case Study of Ipata-Sango) Ilorin.

From IOT, take a bike straight to Ipata. Ipata is usually a marketing area and a very busy place too. There are two lanes road at ipata with shop available along the roadside. Tricycles are also common in that area.

From Ipata, there is a straight road that links to MurtalaRoad and by the left is round about, immediately after the roundabout is straight route to Sango. Sango is also a commercial centre (marketing place) with more lively feature than Ipata. There is a ministry of Agriculture at Sango, a mobile police station and Tricycles are very common there. From Sango, there is straight route to kwara State Polytechnic permanentsite(ps)


Figure 1.1: Description of Case Study

1.6 Proposed Methodology

In collecting data for this project work, various methods were employed. Data used was collected by using both primary and secondary data collection methods. The primary collection method includes.

  1. The administration of structured questionnaires
  2. Personal interviews (with selected of staff and passengers) observations.

The secondary method includes the use of related texts

  1. Related texts
  2. Journals
  3. Magazines and write up on the use of Tricycle as a public transport system
  4. Annual report and account of profit maximization. This help to give a clear exploration of the study.

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The result so far indicate that adverse economic situation of the country has forced the operators into this business, and not the interest of meeting the demand created by inadequate transport facilities. In a nutshell, the activity is worth engaging in and is on a par with other economic activities. The previous chapters explain the significance of tricycle transportation with more emphasis on the term “mobility and accessibility” which buttress the relevance of tricycle transportation. However, this method of transportation needs a well planned and organized system which should subsequently lead to establishment of some agencies. Operational guideline for Tricycles in Ilorin is effective and quite indispensable and most tporicyclists are trained by acquaintances and not obtaining adequate training needed for the tricycle operation. Most operators do not usually wear the safety helmet when riding. Operators complied more during the week than weekend and on operational guidelines enforcement agents.

5.2 Recommendation

  1. Government should sensitized and enlighten the riders over the advantages and benefits of compliance with operational guidelines.
  2. There should be a functional union among Tricycle operators that will be charged with responsibility of checking the excesses of the members
  3. Operational guideline enforcement agent should be more efficient in discharging their duties and make check point along all the roots comply by KEKE NAPEP.
  4. Tricycles should develop willingness to comply and not to allow themselves to be forced before they comply.
  5. Tricycle operators should be encourage to have a formal education before starting up the business.

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