Evaluation Of Suitability Of Latrite Blocks For Construction Of Animal Houses

Project and Seminar Material for Civil and Environmental Engineering

Evaluation Of Suitability Of Latrite Blocks For Construction Of Animal Houses


Abstract


Utilisation of local materials is an important step to sustainable construction to reduce transportation cost, save embodied energy, and protect the environment. This paper advocates the use of local laterite a soil type rich in iron and alumina formed under hot and wet tropical conditions-due to its cost effectiveness and energy efficiency than that of conventional modern materials in tropical developing countries. This paper summarizes the occurrence and characteristics of laterite and then highlights the need for developing universal database of properties and standard testing protocols to facilitate evaluation and extensive use laterite in building applications. Understanding of properties and potential challenges of using this material will benefit for the development of suitable strategies/techniques for sustainable construction. Overall, this study identifies various factors that should be considered for efficient utilization and managements of laterite in construction to meet the growing demand of new housing and infrastructural in different regions of developing tropical world.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Laterite can be said to be a mixture of two or more occurring naturally. This mixture of soil when combined in proper proportion with water and stabilizer can be moulded into blocks, which can complete with sasndcrete blocks when use for building construction.

Lateritic can be obtained when one digs down the ground. It is formed through physical, chemical and organic weathering of rocks just like any other soil. Transportation of sediments in two major ways at directions is the cause of the existence of lateritic soil. Transportation after particle sizes, shapes and texture by grinding and softening the particles. Lateritic can be also said to be a reddish or yellowish materials which can occur in massive or loose aggregate formation. If the formation is massive under favourable conditions of mixture content or consistency. It can be mould together and cut into blocks which on exposure to sun dehydrate and become as hard as granit, and it can be used as massory in building construction.


1.2 Nature Of The Problem

Laterit building construction has been in the use from the time immemorial as for back as the creation of man, since the advent of civilization, the strength demand of most building has greatly increased, resulting in the invention of the Portland cement where the strength of the blocks are partially determined by the ratio of mix, that is water/cement ratio. Rural developments and famers still building houses from lateritic because of the availability of clay and lateritic clay deposit almost every where, but these house such durability and strength as result of the susceptibility of clay soil to expansion and shrinkage with changed. In the mixture content, the cohesive strength at clay soil also decrease with increase in mixture content, thus takes time to drain. These properties of clay make it very unstable and thus walls build such clay bricks lack durability.


1.3 Objective Of The Study

The main objective of this project include the following

  1. To determine the effectiveness of an industrial solid waste from Aliminium Extraction Company as an additive for lateric blocks which will be used for farm building construction.
  2. To obtain or produce a stabilized lateritic block of a maximum compressive strength value.

1.4 Justification Of The Study

Some agricultural farms are food and cement afford to build cement (sandcrete buildings) for live stocks and farm building due to its high cost. This study will help the famers to solve their building problems by providing a good alternative to sandcrete building with the use of laterite soil. This lateritic which has the advantage of being produced locally with already available stabilizer and can generally reduce the total cost of construction of an agricultural building. In this way even low income farmers can afford an improved building in term of strength and durability. From economic development view, as for as production can construction distribution chains are concerned, this technology, generates employment across a wide range of jobless people in the country.


Chapter Two


2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Description Of Laterite

Laterite is a soil and rock type rich in iron and aluminium, and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are of rusty-red coloration, because of high iron oxide content. They develop by intensive and long-lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock. Tropical weathering (laterization) is a prolonged process of chemical weathering which produces a wide variety in the thickness, grade, chemistry and ore mineralogy of the resulting soils. The majority of the land area containing laterites is between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

Laterite has commonly been referred to as a soil type as well as being a rock type. This and further variation in the modes of conceptualizing about laterite (e.g. also as a complete weathering profile or theory about weathering) has led to calls for the term to be abandoned altogether. At least a few researchers specializing in regolith development have considered that hopeless confusion has evolved around the name. There is no likelihood, however, that the name will ever be abandoned; for material that looks highly similar to the Indian laterite occurs abundantly worldwide, and it is reasonable to call such material laterite.

Historically, laterite was cut into brick-like shapes and used in monument-building. After 1000 CE, construction at Angkor Wat and other southeast Asian sites changed to rectangular temple enclosures made of laterite, brick and stone. Since the mid-1970s, some trial sections of bituminous-surfaced, low-volume roads have used laterite in place of stone as a base course. Thick laterite layers are porous and slightly permeable, so the layers can function as aquifers in rural areas. Locally available laterites have been used in an acid solution, followed by precipitation to remove phosphorus and heavy metals at sewage-treatment facilities.

Laterites are a source of aluminium ore; the ore exists largely in clay minerals and the hydroxides, gibbsite, boehmite, and diaspore, which resembles the composition of bauxite. In Northern Ireland they once provided a major source of iron and aluminium ores. Laterite ores also were the early major source of nickel…


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