Evaluation Of Students Academic Achievement In Mathematics In The Junior Secondary School
Abstract
This study was on the evaluation of students achievement in mathematics in the junior secondary school in Ndokwa West local government area. Eight (8) schools where selected, four from urban and four from rural area were selected. The instrument used for the study was the results of year 2011, fro the result of the study and the discussion of findings, it shows that the student academic achievement is poor and the poor is as a result of some influential factors. Such as attitude of students toward the subject mathematics and teachers personality. Then, the researcher there came up with some recommendation and suggestion which can aid the improvement of student’s academic achievement in the junior secondary school result.
Chapter One
Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
Mathematics has played an important role in the educational system of Nigeria. The scientific and technological status of the nation depends on a small; knowledge of mathematics. In history, early measurement approaches for evaluation is based on informal and formal form. The first written best were probably the informally written examination used by Chinese at 2, 200BC. To people into civil services the coral examination initiated by Socrates in the 5th century BC was also inform. In the informal form evaluations were value are assigned by judgment. The formal form of evaluation implies to process of testing in measuring in this examination is conducted to determined the ability of pupils/students. The teacher have been groomed into conducting final examination, reporting the grade, and making the same available to the presents, the actual testing movement as it is known today is less than one hundred year old. In Nigeria, there are much organization as the west Africa Examination Council and the General certificate for education (WAEC/GCE), National Examination council (NECO), the joint Admission and matriculation Board (JAMB).
The WAEC was established first in the 31st December, 1951 in Gambia and in Nigeria 1952Neco was established in 2000. JAMB which was established in changes with the responsibility of conducting university common entrance examination exercises. Lastly the junior secondary school certificate examination has first written in the year 1987 from the year 1987 till now is about 22 years, therefore for this reason, this research wok is carried out to evaluate students academic achievement in mathematic in the junior secondary school. I Nigeria, there is a burning desire to make sure that every child has the slightest idea about his environment and the academic achievement of a child. According to Dartan Williams (1990) stated that there is no clear agreement in the dividing line between rural and urban schools. One might note that the term rural school has no concrete numerical limits, dhdsghd green and Sterlen (1988, 11) one certainly might “in the first place of the 69 key report only 27 mention any numbers at all in their analysis of urban versus rural schools. In the second place, the sjhja limits for a “rural” school in those 27 documents ranges from 200 to 100 students and other ranges from “urban” schools is 3000 to 5000 students, William however write that: On average, the research indicates that an effective size from an elementary school is in the range of 300-400 students and that 400-800 students is appropriate for a secondary school (7-8) while many researchers argue that no school should be large than 400-500 students. I use William’s number in this report, since my own sense of the research is very similar. Many parents in the urban and rural areas and some students may not realized the role performance by mathematics in the present day development the fact is that most students enter secondary school without suffering the basic pre-requisite knowledge to cope with the subject mathematics, in addition these students already have their believe that mathematics deals with abstract before coming into secondary schools.
Mathematics is very useful and important subject. It is important through all aspect of life. Hence there is need to study mathematics in our schools. Mathematics is defined by advance Learners Dictionary as a science of size and numbers of which arithmetic, algebra, geometry, statistics are components. Mathematics can also be defined as the study of logical consequence sets of axioms and postulates, it comprises of two branches. Analysis and algebra concerned respectively with continuous and discuss variation. Mathematics is the language communication of a society; that is the society that communicates mathematics in positive direction will be a better society in all field of life. The importance of this subject is in all field of life. The importance of this subject cannot be over emphasized because mathematic is an inherentance of the race; therefore mathematic as been existing for long before other subject come into existence in the school curriculum. Mathematics had made it easy to the proper understanding of the formulation and structure of science which has sensed a basic pre-requisite for curriculum planner at the national and local linfh mathematic has recently achieved along with other branches of learning, a new changes in learning have led to the recommendation of the mathematic curriculum. He following list according to Douglas and Ray (1974:349-351) summarizes these needs new skill because of urgent need to develop the natural resources of the country it was felt that emphasis should be placed on functional education that will help utilize the elites of the nation and education that will help create things. The practical need of the nation called for functional, education that is the education in which the ability to perform productive tasks is more emphasized than he education that aim at producing PROPle with gust theoretical minds hence science, holding mathematics have been advocated in recent education expectation for schools.
Mathematics is also been found extremely useful in the development scientific knowledge like the discovering of light and sound in physics, in social science, in economics and sociology and in subject related o the earth and its movement in geography. It is well known that mathematics is the language medium for teaching and learning of science an other science related subjects with these put together. It is necessary for the school to take the teaching and learning of mathematics serious with regards to the importance of mathematics above, for any country or society to be technologically self reliant, the role of mathematics cannot be over emphasized. Educationist, past and present seems to ignore importance of mathematics which should be attach to the level of achievement of students performance in urban and rural junior secondary school mathematics examination.
Denise C. Golfrideson (1985) states that urban schools appear to promote negative teacher percentage of school administrated and low staff moral. There is less research on school size in relation o smaller school Emberts, Kehoe, Stone (1982), Gottfredson (1985), Gregory (1992), Johnson (1990), Miller, Ellorworth and Litoral (1992), Slockard and Maybeny (1992), these researcher examined administration attitude, their work, administration, and teacher attitude toward their work, these administration and one another as well as the incidence of co-operation. Also, statistics show that it is evident to students school administration and parents that despites the emphasis in making mathematics a compulsory subject and daily taught subject in junior and senior secondary schools. These has been continuous poor academic achievement I mathematic in J.S.S examination take a good look at the evaluation of students is both urban and rural area in Ndokwa West local Government Area of Delta State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nigeria as a developing nation has seen scientific and technological advancement as a means to achieve national development. The realization of the contribution of science, technology and mathematics (STM) to national development has given rise to an accelerated emphasis on the provision of qualitative, adequate and sound education in STM in Nigeria today more than ever before. Despite the relative importance of mathematics, it is very disappointing to note that the students’ performance in the subject in both internal and external examinations has remained consistently poor (Amazigo, 2000: Agwagah, 2001: Ojaleye, 2001). Records have shown that mass failure in mathematics in these examinations is real and the trend of students’ performance in the subject has been on the decline (Salau, 1995). Some researchers have attributed the observed poor achievement to students’ difficulty in understanding of mathematics as well as students’ lack of interest in science generally. Others have however blamed the situation on the methods employed by teachers, which have been described as dull, uninteresting and ineffective (Ali, 1986, Nworgu 1997). Alio (2000) and Ozofor (2001) have also shown that achievement level of students in science subject in general is affected by such factors as ability and interest. Ability according to Schunk (2004) is the quality or skills required to do or act mentally or physically. It therefore implies that ability has to do what a person has acquired through specific study training in a given instructional sequence in the classroom. Hence students may be of low or high ability as the result of such training. Sufficient research evidences have shown that science teachers in general and mathematics teachers in particular consistently make use of various ineffective methods of teaching probably because of the relative ease of the use of such methods (Ali, 1986, & Ezeh 1992). This, therefore, calls for the need to explore many other techniques, which will not only be easy in usage but will be very effective in the realization of the goals of science education in general. Hence, a study of this nature aiming at finding out the effects of an assessment oriented instructional model on student’s achievement and interest has an immense promise for the improvement of the status of science, technology and mathematics (STM) teaching in Nigeria. The work of Harlem (2003) on enhancing inquiry through formative assessment revealed that formative assessment during teaching enhances better achievement in sciences.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objectives of the study are;
- Examine the interaction effect between the instructions and students mental ability groups on achievement in mathematics in junior secondary school
- Determine the mean achievement scores of students of high and low ability groups taught mathematics in junior secondary school
- Determine the level of student’s interest in school mathematics in junior secondary school
- Examined the interaction effect between the instructions and students ability groups on interest in mathematics in junior secondary school
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: there is no interaction effect between the instructions and students mental ability groups on achievement in mathematics in junior secondary school
H1: there is interaction effect between the instructions and students mental ability groups on achievement in mathematics in junior secondary school - H02: there is no level of student’s interest in school mathematics in junior secondary school
H2: there is level of student’s interest in school mathematics in junior secondary school
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will give a clear insight on evaluation of student’s academic achievement in mathematics in the junior secondary school. The study will be beneficial to educational sector and the students. It will also serve as a reference to other researchers.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this study covers evaluation of student’s academic achievement in mathematics in the junior secondary school. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) Time:
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities
1.7 Definition of Terms
Academic Achievement:
Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. Cumulative GPA and completion of educational degrees such as High School and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.
Mathematics:
Mathematics is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change. It has no generally accepted definition. Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. When mathematical structures are good
Junior Secondary School:
Junior Secondary is a phase of education in state secondary schools for Years 7, 8 and 9, which helps to ensure the bridge between primary and secondary school is safe, strong and consistent for all students.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Chapter Five
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Introduction
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain evaluation of student’s academic achievement in mathematics in the junior secondary school. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of student’s academic achievement in mathematics in the junior secondary school
5.2 Summary
This study was on evaluation of student’s academic achievement in mathematics in the junior secondary school. Four objectives were raised which included: Examine the interaction effect between the instructions and students mental ability groups on achievement in mathematics in junior secondary school, determine the mean achievement scores of students of high and low ability groups taught mathematics in junior secondary school, determine the level of student’s interest in school mathematics in junior secondary school, examined the interaction effect between the instructions and students ability groups on interest in mathematics in junior secondary school. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staffof selected secondary schools in Ndokwa West local government area, Delta state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principals administration, mathematics teachersand junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
5.3 Conclusion
This research study reveals that mathematics interest in junior secondary school students depends on teachers, students, math anxiety, class size, government, instructional strategy used by the teacher, and availability of infrastructural facilities. The variables, teacher factor, student factor, instructional strategy, mathematics anxiety and infrastructural problem were positively related to students’ interest to mathematics, while other variables, class size and government factor had negative relationship with students’ interest to mathematics learning
5.4 Recommendation
Therefore, the following recommendations should be given priority attention.
- Assessment of students for promotion from one level to another should be based on interest test against teacher made test or other tests.
- Government should organize refresher courses for mathematics teachers regularly from which teachers can be equipped with various effective instructional strategies.
- Government should provide schools with infrastructural facilities in addition to equipped and functional mathematics laboratory with trained mathematics laboratory assistants and attendants.
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