An Evaluation Of Other Sources Of Financing Secondary School Education Other Than Government Funding
This study evaluated other sources of financing secondary school education other than government funding using secondary schools in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State as a case study. It was motivated by the difficulties being encountered by heads of schools in financing the secondary schools in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State. 7 research questions and a null hypothesis guided the study. The population of the study was 154 principals and vice principals. There was no sampling because the entire population was used as sample due to its manageable size. A structured questionnaire on the alternative sources of financing the secondary schools was used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using mean (X) with standard deviation (SD) to answer the research questions and chi-square statistics to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The analysis of the data indicated that there are other sources of financing secondary school education in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State which include; the use of community involvement, contributions from Alumni Association and, Non-governmental Organization (NGO). Based on the findings of the study it is recommended among others that school heads should see the communities as stakeholders in the running of the school and deem it necessary to approach for support in financing the schools. Principals and vice principals should endeavour to ensuring that the Alumni’s of the school and NGOs are approached to assist in financing the schools.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Limitation of the Study
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
- 1.9 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Education is essential to a nation’s growth. It’s one of the man-made endeavors aimed at enabling him to live a useful and self-sufficient life in his immediate surroundings (Nwafukwa and Aja, 2010). According to the Federal Republic of Nigeria (2013), education is the best tool for advancing a country. The catalyst of knowledge, Owen (2000) asserted, is one of the tools that might have the greatest impact on our national growth. This indicates that education serves as a fulcrum for our country’s socio-economic, political, and cultural growth. In the wards of (Gwacham, 2005), education is the process by which individuals are made members of their society through individual contribution to nations building as a result of knowledge acquired via education. Therefore, it suggests that education is the cornerstone of a nation’s culture and an absolute necessity for economic prosperity and development. There is hardly any household in this country that is not concerned about the state of our education system particularly the secondary system. Acknowledging the significant role played byeducation (Omebe, 2001) bodes that the aim of educational institutions is to bring a change in the behaviour of human beings through the process of teaching and learning. In the process of achieving these objectives, numerous factors hinder the accomplishment of such objectives. These factors hindering the objectives of these institutions without much attention to the dwindling economy of the nation and its implication on existing theories and concept about achieving better teaching and learning output with alternative sources of financing in the present day Nigeria. Financing of secondary education has become the responsibility of the respective State Governments, (Chikezie, 2008). Various State Governments in turn depend on the revenue accruing to each State from the Federal allocation and internally generated revenue. Some State Governments are unable to meet much of their financial obligations for their secondary school administration. On this ground some State Government are compelled to shift some of their responsibilities to the parents and other beneficiaries of the secondary school education. It becomes imperative to forgo a number of alternatives in the face of dwindling income; the secondary school education found itself lacking a number of facilities for effective learning (Mgbodile, 2004). The consequence on the school environment is rather more disturbing, the school buildings are dilapidated and number and size of classrooms are so inadequate that teaching and learning cannot be enhanced. Basic school materials like Libraries, Laboratories, Chairs, Fans, and Vehicles and among others are getting out of reach (Ozigi and Canham, 2004). This is another unit where the income can no longer guarantee minimum standard of living. The result is that many parents have been forced to withdraw their children from secondary schools, (Nwadiani, 2003). There is a great need about how the degeneration on the financing of education can be controlled in Nigeria, especially in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State. Okunamiri (2002) described Education financing as a branch of knowledge dealing with important examination of cost versus expenditure in the production of educational services. According to him, the real cost of an activity is not simply the money spent on it but the alternative opportunities that have to be foregone or sacrificed when a particular choice is made. It is the process by which tax revenues and other resources are got for the establishment and operation of educational institutions. It also includes the process these monetary resources are allocated to institutions in different geographical areas. Funds are important for the setting up of educational projects such as educational technology centers, bookshops complexes, poultry farms. These projects supplement and compliment existing educational programmes of an institution. For instance, the poultry farms compliment the programme offered by the Animal Science Departments of our tertiary institutions while Educational Technology Centers compliments the programmes of the Facilities of Education in our universities (Mgbodile, 2000). Because of this, alternative funding sources for Nigerian education are warranted. Some of these ideas include raising capital development bank loans, introducing a property tax, receiving donations from endowments, receiving donations from parent/teacher associations, imposing an education tax, imposing a development levy, and receiving donations from alumni associations to finance education. When it comes to education, private and public sector involvement should be promoted since it is necessary for the system. Another potential source of revenue is the graduated tax. External assistance in form of external loans or grants for meaningful and profitable capital project in schools and higher institutions could be sought. Loans could also be sought for personal training for capacity building and technical know- how. In order to derive these benefits, the federal government should uphold the advice that African countries should subject their educational system to revitalization and selective expansion policies in order to benefit from the World Bank donor countries. The use of taxes whether directs or indirect, income or property tax could also be more intensified to generate more revenue for the country. In this regard, educational planners have a lot of work to do in making short and long terms plans for educational financing in the country. This country is predicted to undergo a major shift from a goods-producing civilization to a knowledge-based one. In order to regain Nigeria secondary education’s lost worldwide reputation and maintain its place at the forefront of the country’s socioeconomic, political, and technical growth, it is imperative that the nation’s mindset be oriented toward global perspectives. Alternative models, strategic planning, NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) and community participation, money market and capital market, due process mechanism, adoption of modern management techniques, new curriculum and secondary school management are some of the innovative financial management strategies. Everyone suffers as a result of the child’s poor education. Due to the cost of quality and quantity education, man must thus be prepared to invest. Time, effort, money, supplies, and lost wages are all required as part of the outlay of resources. Since the 1948 United Nations Declaration on Human Rights, the Ouagadougou Declaration on the Conference on Women and Girls (1992), the 1997 Durban Statement of Commitment andthe Dakar Education for All Forums (2000), there has been a rising worldwide interest for universal education.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Secondary school funding in Ebonyi State’s Abakaliki Education Zone has continued to decline, resulting in a rise in educational costs. There has been an increase in the demand for alternative education resources as a result of this increase in the expense of education in the region. For efficient teaching and learning to take place, schools in the zone have infrastructures that appear to be in a state of complete deterioration and in some cases, non-existent. There is little evidence that the government has given secondary schools any significant attention. Classrooms lack sufficient desks and chairs to accommodate pupils, and other structures are still under construction. Inadequate school libraries, labs, and workshops are in place. One regular occurrence is the presence of up to 100 pupils in a classroom or laboratory intended for 30 to 40. The current state of affairs makes it difficult to provide high-quality instruction and learning opportunities, which is detrimental to both. In light of the aforementioned, it is clear that the government is no longer able to meet the needs of schools. There is a lack of planning, inadequate financing, lack of manpower, lack of competent and qualified people, and a rise in the number of school enrolments in Ebonyi State’s educational sector because of this. Most of the secondary schools in Ebonyi State are in disrepair. As a matter of fact, “the state’s education system is beset with difficulties. There are a number of factors that contribute to a bad educational infrastructure, including a lack of money and a lack of classrooms, instructional aids (projectors, computers, and laboratories), and insufficient quality teachers. As secondary schools in Ebonyi State’s Abakaliki Education Zone have deteriorated, it has become clear that the State Government cannot meet the budgetary needs of these schools alone. For this study, what are the alternatives to finance secondary school education in the Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main study objective is to evaluate other sources of financing secondary school education other than government funding, while the specific objectives of the study include;
- Find out if government funding is sufficient for secondary schools administration in Abakaliki Education Zone.
- Determine if community involvement serves as an alternative source of financing secondary education.
- Determine if the contributions from Alumni Association serves as an alternative source of financing secondary education.
- Determine if Non-governmental Organization (NGO) serve as an alternative source of financing secondary education.
- Determine if contributions from Parent Teachers Association (PTA) serves as an alternative source of financing secondary school education in Abakaliki Education Zone.
- Determine if proceeds from school activities serve as an alternative source of financing secondary school education in Abakaliki Education Zone.
- Determine if fund raising activities by the school serve as an alternative source of financing secondary education.
1.4 Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following questions;
- Is government funding sufficient for secondary schools administration in Abakaliki Education Zone?
- How does community involvement serve as an alternative source of financing secondary education?
- How does Alumni Association serve as an alternative source of financing secondary education?
- How does Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) serve as an alternative source of financing secondary education?
- How does Parent Teachers Association (PTA) serve as an alternative source of financing secondary school education in Abakaliki Education Zone?
- How do the proceeds from school activities serve as an alternative source of financing secondary school education in Abakaliki Education Zone?
- How do fund raising activities serve as an alternative source of financing secondary education?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: Secondary education in Abakaliki do not have adequate and effective alternative sources of finance.
Ha: Secondary education in Abakaliki has adequate and effective alternative sources of finance.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Students, teachers, principals, policymakers, and future researchers are all likely to gain from this study. The findings of this study may lead to better management and task performance in schools, as the goal of any educational researcher is to create a good mark in the system. Teachers, students, administrators, and policymakers working to enhance education will all gain something from this study. The following groups of people will benefit from this research: In order for school principals who do not employ these alternative sources of financing secondary school education to be favorably sensitized and mobilized, the findings of this study can help.
Teachers in Ebonyi State’s Abakaliki Education Zone may benefit from learning how secondary school principals in that region use Alternative Sources Financing Secondary School Education in carrying out their duties. They will also gain knowledge that could help them become more effective administrators in their own right. Principals will be able to use the findings of this study to improve their own management skills, increase student success, and assist accomplish the goals of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS). Alternative Sources of Financing Secondary School Education will benefit teachers as well, because an effective school principal management technique like this will encourage teachers to be more duty-conscious, create a good working environment, better participation in decision-making and good relationships between staff, students and management all aimed at achieving organizational goals/objectives within specified time frames. Because of this, the study has the potential to not only raise teachers’ morale but also their academic performance and the development they make as educators. Due to the fact that they are involved in the decision-making process of the school, students will be more motivated to participate in school activities and adhere to school rules and regulations if administrators properly utilize Alternative Sources Financing Secondary School Education. As a product of the school system, students will profit from this study because all educational aims and endeavors are geared at promoting relevant teaching and learning.
In a school atmosphere where principals and teachers work together to achieve school goals, children will be more aware of the aims and objectives of the school and of the National Policy on Education, which is result-oriented, and quantifiable objective. The study’s findings might help educators and policymakers include this crucial part of effective management practices into training and remediation programs for school administrators through seminars, workshops, and lectures. For future research, the findings of this study might serve as a guide for future investigations into the utilization of Alternative Sources Financing Secondary School Education by school administrators. This study’s findings have the potential to have a beneficial impact on everyone involved in the school system and education as a whole.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study focuses on the appraisal of the other sources of financing secondary school education other than government funding among secondary schools in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State. The respondents for this study will be obtained from principals and vice principals of some selected secondary schools in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills and values.
Education finance may be defined as the process through which educational institutions are established and operated, as well as how these resources are allocated to educational institutions in different geographic regions.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
This chapter summarizes the findings on the evaluation of other sources of financing secondary school education other than government funding using secondary schools in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the evaluation of other sources of financing secondary school education other than government funding using secondary schools in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out if government funding is sufficient for secondary schools administration in Abakaliki Education Zone. Ebonyi State, determine if community involvement serves as an alternative source of financing secondary education, determine if the contributions from Alumni Association serves as an alternative source of financing secondary education, determine if Non-governmental Organization (NGO) serve as an alternative source of financing secondary education, determine if contributions from Parent Teachers Association (PTA) serves as an alternative source of financing secondary school education in Abakaliki Education Zone, determine if proceeds from school activities serve as an alternative source of financing secondary school education in Abakaliki Education Zone, and determine if fund raising activities by the school serve as an alternative source of financing secondary education.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 154 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were principals and vice principals resident in Abakaliki Education Zone.
Based on the findings of this study which examined alternative sources of financing Secondary Education in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State, the following conclusions were made: Apart from government funding, the secondary schools in the zone raises funds to help in financing the schools through the following alternative sources: Parent Teacher Association, proceeds from school activities, fund raising activities, community involvement, alumni association and non-governmental organization. There was no consensus opinion between urban and rural, and male and female principals and vice principals on the alternative sources of financing secondary schools in the zone.
The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;
- The school heads should see the communities as stakeholders in the running of the school and deem it necessary to approach for support in financing the schools.
- The principals and vice principals should endeavour to ensuring that the Alumni’s of the school and NGOs are approached to assist in financing the schools.
- Principals and vice principals should consider approaching parent teachers association as alternative means through which funds can be raised to help in financing the schools,
- The principals and vice principals should device school activities such that proceeds from the activities can help in financing the school,
- Ministry of Education should constantly organize workshops and seminars to educate school heads on the best way to organizing fund raising activities to aid in raising funds for the financing of the schools.
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