Evaluation Of The Role Of Inspection And Quality Control In An Organization

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Evaluation Of The Role Of Inspection And Quality Control In An Organization


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

In most factories the activities covering the quality and inspection function are spread throughout its own department and may also spread to supplies of subcontracted items, component supplies, customers and the distribution chain.

At the start of industrial revolution,, goods were supplied by individuals or small groups restricted to the family. Individual craftsman often carried out all the function of quality control and inspection both managerial and technical. The craftsman know his customers needs, planned to meet them, made the articles as well as well as the current state of technology allowed, and need also received his customers complaints.

With the growth of industry and the increasing complexity of project and organizations quality problem began to grow and the management activities of planning, controlling and execution have to be divided between several individuals, although the owner kept control of the key decisions such as setting standards, interpreting results and deciding actions. He was able to do this because he was physically present and know all that was going on and the enterprise was still comparatively small and the employee interest and his own were identical. As the industrial revolution progresses and technology developed and because more widespread, the importance of inspection and quality control function increased for it was not only the company which was now vulnerable but the population at large-a detect circuit breaker can paralyzed a whole district, detect gas equipment can result in explosion and loss of life, a raissile filing to launch gives enormous propaganda advantages to am enemy.

Large companies formed and met the technical challenges by creating technical specialist but they failed to meet the managerial caused by dispersion of quality and inspection activities, both physical and organizational inspection increased by solely with the aim of sorting good from bad, for the first time we had employees whose main activities was inspection and quality and who eventually formed a separate organization unit of the company. During world war 11, inspection was established and has already started to enrich into the area of standardization, detect, prevention and analysis of complaints.

Statistical quality control, reliability, engineering and reliability evaluation were rapidly introduced. The quality control and inspection are important technical and economical considerations in manufacturing. Through engineers and customers specific quality standard is the responsibility of the manufacturing division to produce work of satisfactory quality.

Product quality is defined as “A set of specification governing, functional performance, composition, strength, shape, dimensions, workmanship, colour and finish” quality is meaning fully only in relation to the purpose and end of the product.

Good quality is attained when a product fully satisfies the purpose for which it is designed Oyeoku (1993).
Since the research is on product quality control and inspection in manufacturing industry (undever, Nigeria Plc, Aba) it is good also to know the measuring of quality control and inspection. This will them reveal to the manufacturers what they will look into when inspecting or controlling the quality of a product.

There is no single, concise definition of quality control which is broad enough to convey a complete picture of the overall industrial quality control activity but at the same time narrow enough to differentiate it unambiguously from related industrial activities. He further said that the move acceptable definition is that quality control is “the recognition and removal of identifiable causes of detects and variations from the set standards of a product”. When a product is substandard, statistical techniques can be used for the systematic observation of quality and interpretation of variability, and then corrective action can be undertaken.

Since the quality of a product may be checked by inspection, inspection then means the application of tests and measuring devices to compare products and performance with specified standards. It determines whether a given product fall within specified limits of variability and therefore is acceptable or unacceptable.

Acceptance inspection cannot inspect good quality into the product rather it merely identifies non acceptance unit after detects occur by detecting substandard work during by providing foreman engineers, designers with information useful in eliminating assignable causes of detect work.

Since there are differences between what used to be and sometimes still know as inspection and quality control, it is often assumed that there is no significant differences on the reasoning that a “rose by any name would smell as sweet”.

So far as techniques are concerned, quality control includes most of those employed in inspection. This must be so far measurement of size, weight, volume finish, colour, performance and so forth, are still a vital part of quality control and inspection activity. However, quality control adds other techniques such as sampling and statistical analysis to the older and important basic tools of the inspection.

The differences are of less importance then the difference of approach or philosophy behind the two. Inspection in the old fashioned sense, in a passive activity.

Another aspect of modern quality control and inspection practice, which illustrates its differences from older method, is the attention paid to the inspection and quality not only of the product useful but also of those factors, which will have a significant bearing upon the quality of the product. Thus the inspection and finality of the product design is of great importance. Without good standard of design there is no possibility of astaining a total satisfactory product.

A concentration of design standard leads to an interesting aspect of the subject of quality control and inspection. It is then the sole responsibility of the quality controllers, inspectors to aid in ensuring that the design and also satisfies the customers needs. 1.1.13 we have the opportunity to expand these techniques as a result of a now ideas sweeping through industry and which are being expressed in the demands of customers for higher control of inspection on quality. The necessity to build in quality at all safes of industrial activity is now being accepted and it is recognized that quality and inspection is the concern of everybody in the company and that many aspects of quality transcends the functions, responsibilities and frequently the capability of quality control and inspection staff.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Customers require product that will satisfy their immediate needs. History is replete of organization with promising potentials for greatness that were wipes in the bud owing to the ineffective product. Extent upon immediate supervision in the production section, since they are responsible for directing it towards the goals either it is given or they choose for it.

In commercial area like Aba where the numbers of industries have wereased considerably with rampant cases of products of low quality, the need to for the study of product quality control and inspection becomes very critical.
The interaction of quality controllers or supervisions in the quality section of product department with the varying degrees of training and experience operators usually desire less interference on how to operate and control their machines for quality and also to offer their views on issues relating to role of inspection and quality control in are organization.

There are many quality control and inspection stages in the production line where product quality can be controlled. But generally, some quality controllers are include to adopting the raw-material control stages work-in-progress control stage and finished product stage. Others are inclined to adopting only the purchase of raw materials.


1.3 Objective Of The Study

This project is survey of the problem of a product quality control and inspection in a manufacturing industry.
He central aim is to examine the present status of product quality control and inspection in the selected industry, so that the strengths and weakness and also the factors affecting the development can determined so as to provide a second base for a more posctive future approach.

It will help them to produce products that are satisfactory, adequate, dependable and economic. Also to help them to realized and achieved the fullest potential of their programmes by developing a sound economical quality control and inspection programmes in an industry.


1.4 Relevance Of The Study

Since Nigeria achieved a political independence, no stringent attempt has been made to improve products manufactured by Nigeria industries. This is why the work on the role of inspection and quality control in an organization is important.

The inspection is mean for manufactures to take corrective measures in the development and improve of role of inspection and quality control in an organization or industry.

The main significance of inspection work is the economical production of a greater quality of more uniform product at the quality level of the customer wants. Each part of this study is important, because only when all these significant are realized will be true role of inspection and quality control programme be achieved.

Greater uniformity can be realized its inspection department simply sorts out the bad product from the good. This, of course is one way to get to quality product by reducing variability and increasing product uniformity through inspection and quality control a grater quality of good products is produced. Raw materials. Both productive and non-productive labour costs are reduced. Beyond these direct significance to manufactures are the longer term economic benefits of conservation of the nations manpower and resources.


1.5 Scope Of The Study

The function or role of inspection and quality control in an organization the roles of inspection take place in many types of organizations both private and public. Role of inspection and quality control widely take place in the organization like in the health service, local governments, and in ministries/parastatals. The role of inspection and quality control play a vital role in the organizations structure from industry to industry.


1.6 Limitation Of Study

It is necessary to comment that the scope of the study has been limited by a umber of circumstances, which are beyond the authors control. An organization was already set up in business and the original decision markers were invariably not available to explain these motivational influences. This made it impossible to get answers, which are useful to the topic in writing.

The controller was not ready to review way they used in controlling the quality of their plans since their establishment. They are more or less experts sent down by parent company to manage their factories after decision have been taken are other limitations of the general nature peculiar to surveys. The most important in the method tends to be more subjective approach.

On Nigeria, the way people look at researchers in another limitating factor. They thought that researchers are out of probe their company as such; the are based and seared at releasing vital information that would have been useful to the researchers.

Death of availability of material for the research is one of the reason why some needed statistical data required were non-existence.

This stems from the fact that the cost of producing books are high and the ones already produced have been stolen by unscrupulous elements in the high institutions and public libraries.

Moreover, most of our libraries are poorly equipped. Most companies are scared of exposing their techniques to competitors and also unavailability of classified materials are also among factors militating against the study.


Evaluation Of The Role Of Inspection And Quality Control In An Organization


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