Evaluation Of Private Sector Involvement In Waste Disposal Among Selectorial Communities In Abraka Ethiope East Local Government

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

Evaluation Of Private Sector Involvement In Waste Disposal Among Selectorial Communities In Abraka Ethiope East Local Government


Abstract


This study was carried out to evaluate private sector involvement in waste disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government. The study was carried out to find out whether the private sector participate in waste disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government; find out whether private actors have adequate equipment for regular waste collection and disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government; find out whether the private sector are effective in wast disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government; and ascertain the problems of private firms involvement in waste management among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of residents of Abraka Ethiope East Local Government. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the private sector participate in waste disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government. Furthermore, the study revealed that the private sector are effective in wast disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government. Therefore, it is recommended that tovernment should provide incentives and reward private operators for performing effectively. This is to simulate the interest of other operators and create competition among them resulting in improved standards of waste management and clearer environment. In the same vein there should be penalties and collection of user charges by concessionaire in case of default from private operators and ensuring that some areas are not serviced or under-served. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Waste management is a complex issue in developing countries, from mega-cities to small towns and villages, and has been on the priority list of successive governments, local authorities, and international donors in recent years(Hoornweg, 2012). This issue creates one of the most critical health and environmental concerns confronting many administrators(Olukanni, 2017). In many constitutions, it is the responsibility of the government to provide infrastructure; including power and water supplies, public transportation, telecommunications, security, and waste management facilities. As documented in the policy guidelines of the Federal Ministry of the Environment (2005) on Solid Waste Management, waste management in Nigeria is constitutionally the responsibility of the third tier of government, that is, the local government(Adeleke, 2016). However, this tier of government has not committed the necessary financial, material, and human resources to waste management to fulfil their responsibility(Anestina, 20140).

The actual performance of the public sector in Nigeria has left much to be desired not only in the waste management sector but in many of the state-owned enterprises which are not responsive to the changing requirements of a growing and dynamic economy and do not seem to possess the necessary tools for effective service delivery(Asaolu, 2015). Solid waste management institutions in Nigeria are crippled by the lack of a comprehensive legislative framework for effective solid waste management, overlapping functions, lack of funding, poor implementation of environmental policy, vested interests and corruption, and a technological deficit to match the rate at which solid waste is being generated (Kantola, 2013).

The people also have a part to play in effective SWM, as poor waste disposal habits, corruption, refusal to pay for waste collection services and bad work attitudes hinder the efforts of the government in providing an effective waste management service in Nigeria(Olukanni, 2019). Given the failure of the public sector in effective service delivery, many have viewed the involvement of the private sector in public infrastructure provision as a way forward. This approach has gained global prominence with varying degrees of success in different countries and in different sectors of the economy. On view of the aforementioned this study aims to evaluate private sector involvement in waste disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Waste management has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing state and local government environmental management agencies in Nigeria. The volume of waste being generated continues to increase at a faster rate than the ability of the agencies to deploy financial and technical resources needed to overcome this. The increasing consumption pattern constitutes some of the sources of the waste generation creating a major concern for the management (FEPA, 1995). There is the need to recognize key issues that are peculiar to developing countries in managing municipal waste and to understand the reasons for these peculiar issues in order to establish sustainable management of waste. Experience shows that the conventional way of waste management by relegating responsibilities solely to the government officials has proven to be no longer effective.

Since government alone cannot expectedly bear the full burden of financing solid waste management, there should be alternative sources particularly cost recovery from user charges that is “waste generator pays – principle”. This can only be successful if the responsibility is shared with the private sector. The participation of the private sector in waste management practices in collaboration with the government is multi-faceted, which involves several stakeholders in the process of implementation. To implement an innovative PPP municipal waste management programme city-wide, careful planning, organization and cooperation among these stakeholders are needed (Cebu, 2012).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main study objective is to evaluate of private sector involvement in waste disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government. The specific objectives of the study include;

  1. Find out whether the private sector participate in waste disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government.
  2. Find out whether private actors have adequate equipment for regular waste collection and disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government.
  3. Find out whether the private sector are effective in wast disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government.
  4. Ascertain the problems of private firms involvement in waste management among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Does the private sector participate in waste disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government?
  2. Does the private actors have adequate equipment for regular waste collection and disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government?
  3. Is the private sector effective in wast disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government?
  4. What are the problems of private firms involvement in waste management among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The private sector is not effective in wast disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government.
  • Ha: The private sector is effective in wast disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Waste management in many countries including Nigeria is a primary responsibility of the government and in practice; more often than not most governments are unable to meet this responsibility due to a number of reasons. It is argued that although the service is an important public good, most administrations in developing countries have failed to provide it to a large section of the population (Bolaane and Ali, 2004). The author pointed out that the main reason for this is the inability to manage waste is due to rapid population growth coupled with the rapid expansion of cities, diminishing financial resources and poor urban planning.

In Delta State like in many State in Nigeria, there has been an upsurge in the heap of solid waste openly dumped amidst residential, commercial and industrial areas due to increase in population. This state of mess is apparent everywhere along gutter, ponds, roadside and backyard, which makes one to wonder whether the agency responsible is keeping to its duty. The absence of waste services can jeopardize other infrastructure services such as roads and water drains, for example, by blocking water channels and encouraging flash floods and flood poundage, which often occur in the city. Although government authorities have and are still applying all the means at their disposal, the piles of wastes continually grow. Given the economic reality of the shrinking municipal budgets due to the global economic recession and a more restriction of municipal government attention to other more pressing issues like insecurity, unemployment in Nigeria, the problem will worsen unless alternate approaches can be developed (Adewusi, 2004). It would be interesting to know whether partnership of private sectors with the government could be the best way to address the problem.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the evaluation of private sector involvement in waste disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government. The respondents for this study will be obtained from residents of Abraka Ethiope East Local Government.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Solid waste: any garbage or refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air.
Waste Management: Refers to the “collection, transportation, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials”


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the evaluation of private sector involvement in waste disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the evaluation of private sector involvement in waste disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government. The study is was specifically set to find out whether the private sector participate in waste disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government; find out whether private actors have adequate equipment for regular waste collection and disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government; find out whether the private sector are effective in wast disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government; and ascertain the problems of private firms involvement in waste management among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are residents of Abraka Ethiope East Local Government.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The private sector participate in waste disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government.
  2. Private actors have adequate equipment for regular waste collection and disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government.
  3. The private sector are effective in wast disposal among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government.
  4. The problems of private firms involvement in waste management among selectorial communities in Abraka Ethiope East Local Government include; discriminatory service provision, irregular collection of wastes, lack of clean environment after waste collection, and high charges.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Government should provide incentives and reward private operators for performing effectively. This is to simulate the interest of other operators and create competition among them resulting in improved standards of waste management and clearer environment. In the same vein there should be penalties and collection of user charges by concessionaire in case of default from private operators and ensuring that some areas are not serviced or under-served.
  2. The capacity of the waste collectors must be improved by appropriate capacity building efforts. To do this, the firms must employ more workers and get more working equipment and ensure a better pay package for the employees so as to motivate workers which on the long run, will help to increase the firm‟s capacity to cope with the city‟s waste generation rates.
  3. There is the need for government to make concerted effort towards developing new road networks as well as engage in repairs of bad road linkages especially around Rigasa and the environs where residents are being underserved by the private firms mainly due to inaccessibility of residential areas by waste management service providers owing to nature of settlement patterns and road networks which is mostly in bad conditions.
  4. For a public private partnership to deliver its expected results, all actors in the partnership arrangement are required to execute their assigned responsibilities. Therefore there is the need to partner the residents especially the women as well as the communities in service monitoring as this will go a long way in eliminating irregularity of waste collection as well as ensuring service payment compliance by service benefactors.

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