Evaluation Of Physico-Chemical Parameters Of Waste Water From Federal Polytechnic Nekede Fish Farm And Their Impacts On Water Quality (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede Fish Pond)

Project and Seminar Material for Civil and Environmental Engineering

Evaluation Of Physico-Chemical Parameters Of Waste Water From Federal Polytechnic Nekede Fish Farm And Their Impacts On Water Quality (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede Fish Pond)


Abstract


In this study we want to assess the level of pollution in fish pond water before it can be discharge. We collected four samples, two days interval to check the level of pollution in the pond water as the day goes. The samples were subjected to laboratory analysis to ascertain its physical and chemical properties. Ten physico-chemical parameters were carried out on fish pond waste water. The results showed variation in the observed parameters at the different sampling. Temperature was 23.0-25.9ºC, ph was 6.24-6.68, Ammonia-nitrogen (NH3) was 0.9-0.15mg/l, Dissolved oxygen values was 13.3-9.3mg/l, Biological oxygen demand was 2.9-3.53mg/l, Total alkalinity was 43.1-50.4mg/l. Total Dissolved solids was 27.9-95.2mg/l, Total hardness was 19.7-21.5mg/l, Turbidity was 125-170 NTU. Electrical conductivity was 137.6 and 144.3µmhos/cm. This result showed that as the day goes the level of pollution increases.


Table of Contents


  • Cover page
  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Scope of study
  • 1.6 Limitation of Study

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Fish pond wastewater
  • 2.2 Constituents found in wastewater
  • 2.2.1 Physical constituents
  • 2.2.2 Chemical constituents
  • 2.3 Wastewater treatment and methods
  • 2.3.1 Physical Method
  • 2.3.2 Chemical Treatment
  • 2.3.3 Biological Treatment Methods
  • 2.4 Aims of treatment of fish pond wastewater
  • 2.5 Methods Of Disposal of Fishpond Wastewater
  • 2.5.1 Surface disposal
  • 2.5.2 Subsurface disposal
  • 2.5.3 Disposal by dilution
  • 2.6 Wastewater characteristics
  • 2.7 Parameters of wastewater
  • 2.7.1 Ammonia
  • 2.7.2 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
  • 2.7.3 Electrical conductivity
  • 2.7.4 Suspended solids
  • 2.7.5 pH
  • 2.7.6 Turbidity
  • 2.7.7 Temperature
  • 2.7.8 Dissolved solids
  • 2.7.9 Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
  • 2.8 Fish pond
  • 2.8.1 Types of ponds
  • 2.9 Catfish and Its Feeding
  • 2.10 Aquaculture
  • 2.11 Effects of fish pond wastewater on groundwater
  • 2.12 Main components of wastewater characteristics

Chapter Three:

Methodology

  • 3.1 Study area
  • 3.2 Sample collection
  • 3.3 Procedure for laboratory analysis
  • 3.3.1 Biological oxygen demand (BOD) test
  • 3.3.2 PH test
  • 3.3.3 Total alkalinity test
  • 3.3.4 Turbidity test
  • 3.3.5 Total hardness test
  • 3.3.6 Temperature test
  • 3.3.7 Total dissolved solids test
  • 3.3.8 Electrical conductivity test
  • 3.3.9 Total dissolved oxygen

Chapter Four:

Result, Presentation and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results of physico-chemical parameters
  • 4.2 Discussion of results
  • 4.2.1 PH
  • 4.2.2 Temperature
  • 4.2.3 Ammonia (NH3)
  • 4.2.4 Dissolved oxygen
  • 4.2.5 Biological oxygen demand (BOD)
  • 4.2.6 Total alkalinity
  • 4.2.7 Turbidity
  • 4.2.8 Total dissolved solid
  • 4.2.9 Total hardness
  • 4.2.10 Electrical conductivity
  • Figure 4.1: graph of BOD and DO against samples
  • Figure 4.2: graph of hardness and alkalinity against samples
  • Figure 4.3: graph of conductivity and turbidity against samples
  • Figure 4.4: graph of ammonia against samples

Chapter Five:

Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One:


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Aquaculture is a net consumer of water and most form require the use of considerable quantities (Muir and Beveridge 1980; Phillips et al 1991) and quality. Boyd and Gross (2000) stated that the different forms of aquaculture is quite similar because they all obey the same set of physical and chemical principles. These principles compose the subject of water chemistry and its net results i.e. the water quality. According to Boyd (1990) the most serious threat to profitable fish production is poor water quality and lack of our acceptable quantity of water.

The quality of water in terms of physicochemical and biological characteristics in the fish ponds offers the most favorable conditions for the existence of fish as well as other biota which constitute essential 10 components of the food chain (Gupta and Gupta, 2006). The maintenance of good water quality is essential for both survival and optimum growth of culture organisms. There are two main categories of water supply for aquaculture, ground water and surface water. However, not all available water is good enough for fish farming. According to United State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2006) Water quality standards vary significantly due to different environmental conditions, ecosystem and intended human uses.

The complexity of water quality as a subject is reflected in many types of measurements of water quality indicators. Adeniji and Ovie (1982) observed that temperature, turbidity, suspended solids, dissolved oxygen concentration are among other primary factors that determine the quality of a water body.

There is much variation within and among fish groups with regard to acceptable water quality requirements have been variously defined (Boyd, 1989) to ensure optimum production. Fishes are most dependent on water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, alkalinity and some other salts for growth and development (Nikolosky, 1963). Any change in any of these parameters may affect the growth, development and maturity of fish (Jhingram, 1985).

The quality of aquaculture products and its suitability for human consumption may also be affected by water quality. Zweig et al (1999) noted that even if culture species are able to grow and thrive in a given source of water, low levels of pollutants may cause the aquaculture products to be contaminated or have off-flavour. They reported that many of the negative chemical and environmental factors associated with most operators have their origin in the source of water selected. Aquaculture has not yet fulfilled its potential as a major source of fish supply in Nigeria despite the suitability of water resources availability.

In Nigeria aquaculture fish production was 16.87% of total domestic fish production for 2007 (FDF, 2008). However, aquaculture can contribute significantly to domestic fish production if all the water resources are utilized. Therefore, it is important to check the source of water and make sure it can sustain the fish.

Fish pond is characterized by the use and management of inputs like feed and fertilizer, with a potential for the spread of pathogens. There is also a high rate of generation of waste material, which includes organic matter, nutrients and suspended solids in ponds and this directly impacts on the quality of receiving streams through oxygen depletion, entrophication, and turbidity (Beasley and Allen 1974; Tucker et al. 1979; Shireman and Cichra 1994; Naylor et al 2000; Yin and Li 2003).

Nitrogen and phosphorous are the key nutrients generated in fish pond (aquaculture) system (Boyd and Massaut 1999). Inefficiency of nitrogen and phosphorous use from feeds into fish biomass (Tucker et al. 2000) indicates that much of the remaining nutrient load is lost to the pond ecosystem as fish waste products (Stephen and Harris 2004). High concentrations of these nutrients can harm fish and aquatic ecosystem (Losorto et al. 1992; Tucker 1995).
A microbial study on common feeds and organic fertilizers used in the ponds i.e this studies have focused on the economic feasibility of management practices that might be adopted by fish farmers to deal with regulations on effluent discharge and to treat their wastewater before release.

It is therefore important to know about water quality parameters and their management which have influence on growth and survival of aquatic organisms. The purpose of this project work was to provide data on water chemistry and biological characteristics of fish ponds in Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri. Furthermore, to determine any build up of certain parameters that may affect healthy fish production.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

When toxic substances enter a body of water, they will be dissolved, become suspended in water or get deposited on the bed of the water body. The resulting water pollution causes the quality of water to deteriorate and affects aquatic ecosystem.

When aquaculture wastewater is discharged, the pollutants can also seep down and affect groundwater sources.

When the concentration of organic matter, nutrients, and suspended solids in ponds shoot up, and this directly increase oxygen demand, enthrophication, and turbidity in receiving water.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The specific objectives of this study are:

  1. To test and ascertain the quality of wastewaters from Federal Polytechnic, Nekede fish farm.
  2. To compare the result with World Health Organization (WHO) for wastewater disposal.
  3. To suggest better ways of wastewater disposal on other bodies of waters.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study is significant because it will serve as a guide to fish farmers. Wastewater contains various pollutant such as suspended, dissolved organic and inorganic solids with the current emphasis on environmental health and water pollution issues, there is an increasing awareness of the need to dispose of this wastewater safely and beneficial use of wastewater if its disposal is being planned.

Irrigation with wastewater is both disposal and utilization and indeed is an effective form of wastewater disposal (as in stock rate and treatment). However, some degree of treatment must normally be provided to fish pond wastewater before it can be used for agriculture or landscape irrigation.


1.5 Scope of Study

This study will consider the parameters of wastewater collected from Federal Polytechnic Nekede fish farm and their effects on water bodies when discharged. The scope also focuses on the different tests carried on the different parameters in other to ascertain their levels of pollution.


1.6 Limitation of Study

In the course of carrying out this project, some difficulties were encountered such as:

  1. Poor provision of practical equipments during the practical.
  2. Financial problems due to the present situation of the economy.
  3. Lack of corporation among the group members.

Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

In conclusion, there is the desirable need to analyze the fish pond water at regular intervals. This is quality assurance process to ensure that there are no high toxic substances in the ponds leading to possible bio-accumulation and magnification. In this way the good health of the aquatic ecosystem, humans and environment can be guaranteed.


5.2 Recommendation

From the test carried out during this study, it is safe to conclude that the wastewater from Federal Polytechnic fish farm is polluted.

The following recommendation was considered.

  1. Farmers should be educated on better managerial practices bordering on feeding practices, pond management, good water exchange practice to reduce organic load and waste accumulation.
  2. This method should be used to assess the level of pollution in the pond before it can be discharge in the environment.

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