Evaluation Of The Level Of Vitamin C, Vitamin E And Malondialdehyde In Male Smokers And Non Smokers

Project and Seminar Material for Biochemistry

Evaluation Of The Level Of Vitamin C, Vitamin E And Malondialdehyde In Male Smokers And Non Smokers


Abstract


Smoking is associated with high incidence of morbidity and mortality. The free radicals released during smoking thought to play an important role in forming imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants. A total number of 200 subjects comprising of 50 healthy controls and 150 cases of smokers divided into mild, moderate and heavy smokers studied. In all the subjects, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant serum vitamin C were estimated. Serum MDA was significantly increased in smokers when compared to controls. The oxidative stress level was elevated in accordance with the intensity of smoking. The antioxidant serum vitamin C was significantly decreased in smokers when compared to controls. The presence of increased systemic oxidative stress in smokers seems to be associated with current active smoking and systemic inflammation. The decrease in antioxidant levels appears to be mainly a consequence of increased oxidative stress. Hence by advising cessation of smoking and taking diet rich in antioxidants may prevent oxidative damage and prevent oxidative stress related diseases.


Chapter One


Introduction

Tobacco smoking is a practice of burning tobacco and inhaling the smoke (consisting of gaseous phases and particles). A more broad definition may include taking tobacco smoke into the mouth, and then releasing it, as is done by some with tobacco pipes and cigars. The practice may have begun as early as 5000-3000 BC.1
Smoking plays an important role in disturbing the antioxidant balance. Normally blood contains a healthy complement of antioxidants that keep oxidative damage to a minimum. Tobacco smoke contains abundant reactive oxygen species and also activated neutrophils released due to smoking also add to the pool of reactive oxygen species which deplete these antioxidant mechanisms leading to tissue damage. 2

Malondialdehyde is a organic compound with the formula CH2 (CHO) 2. This reactive species occurs naturally and is a marker for oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species degrade polyunsaturated lipids present on cell membrane forming malondialdehyde. This aldehyde product is used as a biomarker to measure the level of oxidative stress in an organism. 3

Antioxidants depletion or deficiency may contribute to oxidative stress. Antioxidants not only protect against the direct injurious effects of oxidants, but also alter the inflammatory events that play an important role in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress related diseases. 4 Vitamin C is a water soluble free radical scavenger, can directly scavenge O2 and OH- radicals and help to neutralize physiological oxidant burden created by both exogenous and endogenous sources. 5

Present study is undertaken to evaluate serum malondialdehyde as indicator of oxidative stress and serum vitamin C as indicator of antioxidant level in smokers and non smokers.


Rationale of Study

Oxidative stress is associated with diverse conditions which include atherosclerosis (Van et al., 2006), cancer (Eze et al., 1993), Diabetes mellitus (Lee, 2006; Davi et al., 2005), ageing (Rattan, 2006), Rheumatoid arthritis (Hitchon and ElGabalawy, 2004), neurodegeneration in motor neuron diseases. (Cookson and Shaw, 1999), HIV-AIDS (Porcenichet al., 2006), Parkinson’s disease (Wood-Kaczmar et al., 2006), Alzheimer’s disease (Christen, 2000; Nunomuraet al., 2006), fragile X syndrome, (de-Diego-Otero et al., 2009) and some others. It is generally known that plants contribute significantly to the improvement of human health (Sil et al., 2006). This study therefore aims at evaluating the level of vitamin c, vitamin e and malondialdehyde in male smokers and non-smokers.


Research Objectives

  1. To determine the level of vitamin c, vitamin e and malondialdehyde in male smokers and non-smokers.
  2. To determine the LD50 of the extract.
  3. The hepatoprotective effect of the extract
  4. The antioxidant effect of the aqueous extract of Combretumdolichopentalum.

Chapter Five


Conclusion

Present study demonstrates there is increased oxidative stress in smokers compared to non-smokers. The oxidative stress level was elevated in accordance with the intensity of smoking. This study also demonstrates the decreased antioxidant level insmokers compared to non-smokers. This study emphasizes that tobacco smoke causes disturbance in balance between oxidative stress and antioxidant level. Hence by advising cessation of smoking and taking diet rich in antioxidants may prevent oxidative damage and prevent oxidative stress related diseases.


Recommendations

Further study and long period follow up is needed to find whether Group B subjects end up with myocardial infarction in due course, to ascertain the gene-environment interaction in Group A and Group B subjects and to answer why all chronic smokers (13 or more cigarettes per day for a period of 12 or more years) do not experience myocardial infarction.


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