An Evaluation Of Instructional Resources In The Effective Teaching Of Geography

Geography Education Project and Seminar Material

An Evaluation Of Instructional Resources In The Effective Teaching Of Geography


Abstract


The study investigation focuses on an evaluation of instructional resources in the effective teaching of Geography. A case study of Iwajowa Local government Area of Oyo State.

Research questions were formulated in relation to the aim and objectives set for the study rand sampling techniques was used in selection of 25 respondents in each of the selected school Itile Comprehensive High School Itasa, A.D.S High School Iwere-Ile, Ilupeju Community Grammar School Iwere-Ile, Community Grammar School Idiko-Ago, in all 100 respondents were used for the study.

Data were collected through questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage.

The study revealed that medial instructional materials have not been widely spread over the area and those that have been found have not been utilized effectively which results in poor/low performances of the learners in Geography.

Also, the parents/guidance, the teachers the government and the students themselves should take their active part in improvisation of those needed resources and there should be good maintenance of the materials.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The term Geography can be traced back to two Latin words “Geo and Graphe”- Geo means the earth while Graphy means description. Various Geographers and scholars vividly examined the concept of geography in which they all mostly agreed that Geography is the study of earth and its environments

Vidal de la Blache, the father of modern geography argued that (as quoted from Appales de Geographe 1921).

Geography recognized the unity of terrestrial phenomena he, therefore, pursued a world view and consideration of causes and genetic types of grouping of terrestrial phenomena.

Terrestrial phenomena are localized in varied combinations.

  • Geography seeks to describe, localize and explained these co-variations.
  • Geography seeks to measure the influence of especially climate and vegetation on man.
  • Geography, therefore, seeks for scientific methods of defining and classifying terrestrial phenomena, as well as that;
  • Geography seeks to measure and localize the great part that man plays in modifying the face of the earth.

These objectives were pursued by a leading pupil of his, Albert Demangeon, who listed four major fields of investigation for human geography.

  1. The study of resources, natural and human.
  2. The evolution and localization of different types of civilization
  3. The distribution and movement of population; and
  4. The classification, distribution and development of the facts of the humanized landscape-field, house, village, route, town and state.

Generally, before 1950, the study of geography was approached mainly from the idiographic points of view. In other words geography was viewed as purely descriptive, seeking to provide a more and more useful and accurate picture of the fact of the earth as the home of man. Geographical studies as at 1950s answers the questions of “ where” and “why” where questions is about location of places, while questions answer or focus in geography to favour description of phenomenon on or near the earth’s surface.

Geography as descriptive and distributive in nature needs various resources for its effectiveness in teaching learning activities which may be textual like books, audio-visual, visual and humanitarian.

(Alabi E.A 2007) states that, these resources are either used individually or collectively in any meaningful geography teaching and learning situation.

The extent to which teachers use instructional materials in order to supplement the basic daily teaching activities varies depending on how a teacher can exercise professional judgment about how they can be found, where they can be found where and when they can be used.

Akinde O.O (1984 pg 7) explains that Amos Cornelius who said to be the first educator to appreciate the value of instructional materials developed his educational theories, he recommended attractive classroom i.e. conducive environment for learning geography, maximum sense appeal, studies facilitators meaning the use of materials suitable for learning and good text books.

In a nut shell, in selecting the materials or learning resources to be used in a geography class some factors must be well observed and critically examined which are.

  1. The environment at which the materials is to be used
  2. The teaching objectives under listed
  3. The age and maturity of the students
  4. The reading ability of the learners
  5. The level of difficulty of the concept subsumed in the subject matter.
  6. The learner’s background and others.

The romance of teaching resources and the teaching of geography in our public secondary schools cannot be over emphasis. This is to achieve optimum communication outcome in terms of pedagogy with the students. To achieve this therefore, the teacher has not only to work relentlessly, but also has to make use of resources or instructional materials in an attempt to facilitate better communication and understanding of the subject matter. Instructional resource will not only reduce the task of the teacher in the classroom instructions, it will help to facilitate and create pleasant atmosphere for learning. In addition, the use of instructional materials provides teachers and students the opportunity of developing the ability to imagine to improve and relate to things they observed to reality. Teachers of public schools should not rely on verbal instruction alone but they should be encouraged to use appropriate instructional materials will not only give colour to their classroom instructions, it will also tie verbal concept and gives the students sense of belonging and perfect understanding of the concepts.


1.2 Statement of Problems

In view of pronounced necessity to marry on the use of resources (instructional materials) with dissimilate of survey into resources for the teaching of geography in public secondary schools using some selected public secondary schools in Iwajowa Local Government Area Oyo state with the view to assess the extent to which teachers of geography involve the use of teaching resources to complement their teaching. Apart from the above, this research will also go further to assess the extent to which learners relate to these materials. However, Maria Montessori and Plato the propounded of play way method of instruction assess that children experience a permanent change in behaviour when they interact with teaching complementing materials because they easily remember what they touch during instructions. To draw conclusion on this aspect of my research work it is hoped that this research will effect positive change in the teaching pedagogical and regogical processes of geography in our secondary school in Iwajowa Local government area of Oyo State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To ascertain the Materials to be used in teaching-learning situation
  2. To ascertain the When to use instructional materials
  3. To ascertain the necessary for the Geography teachers in our secondary schools to inculcate the habit of using instructional materials
  4. To ascertain the benefits of using models and map as instructional materials in Geography lesson
  5. To know the consequences of using audio-visual instructional aids in Geographical studies

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

  1. H0: there are no benefits of using models and map as instructional materials in Geography lesson
    H1: there are benefits of using models and map as instructional materials in Geography lesson
  2. H02: there are no Materials to be used in teaching-learning situation
    H2: there are Materials to be used in teaching-learning situation

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will give a clear insight on evaluation of instructional resources in the effective teaching of geography. The study will be beneficial to students, teachers and the general public. It will also serve as a reference to other researchers that will embark on this topic


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers an evaluation of instructional resources in the effective teaching of geography. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational Privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities


1.4 Definition of Terms

Instructional Resources:

Instructional Materials are any collection of materials including animate and inanimate objects and human and non-human resources that a teacher may use in teaching and learning situations to help achieve desired learning objectives.

Teaching:

Teaching, the profession of those who give instruction, especially in an elementary or a secondary school or in a university. Measured in terms of its members, teaching is the world’s largest profession.

Geography:

Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was on an evaluation of instructional resources in the effective teaching of geography. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of evaluation of instructional resources in the effective teaching of geography


5.2 Summary

This study was on evaluation of instructional resources in the effective teaching of geography. Five objectives were raised which included: To ascertain the Materials to be used in teaching-learning situation, to ascertain the When to use instructional materials, to ascertain the necessary for the Geography teachers in our secondary schools to inculcate the habit of using instructional materials, to ascertain the benefits of using models and map as instructional materials in Geography lesson, to know the consequences of using audio-visual instructional aids in Geographical studies. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary school Iwajowa Local government Area of Oyo State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

The study findings indicated that teachers play an important role in the teaching and learning process. Thus the limited use of various and appropriate instructional resources is a factor that poses a challenge to teaching and learning of Geography subject. Moreover, the teaching and learning of Geography is affected by the availability of instructional materials in the schools. Instructional resources are important inputs for effective teaching and learning. As noted in the study, most schools lacked instructional materials. An examination of the findings on the extent of teacher‘s use of instructional materials show that, the availability of instructional materials has an impact on the teachers ‗use of the materials in teaching of the subject. It was found that few 28.4% teachers used textbooks and maps in teaching the subject in their schools. However, limited use 31.5% of other instructional materials was noted to some extent in the schools that participated in the study. This could be attributed to the situations in their institutions which dictate the availability of instructional materials that can be adopted for use in instruction to ensure better results in Geography. The availability of instructional materials to a large extent is influenced by the teacher‘s instructional approaches and also determined use in classroom teaching.


5.4 Recommendation

Since the study established that the challenge related to the teaching and learning of Geography has to do with the use of instructional materials, the Geography teachers are therefore called upon to consider the relevance of the content, usability, appropriateness in choice and use of teaching materials. It is clear from the study that various teaching methods are effective depending on the purpose of instruction. There is, therefore, need for the Geography teachers to consider such purpose as preparation for exams, enhancing student understanding, realization of lesson objectives and the syllabus coverage in the use of various methods of instruction


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