An Evaluation On The Impact Of Urbanization, Its Effects And Disruptions On Nigerian Cities (A Case Study Of Abuja)
1.1 Background to the Study
Urbanization is not merely a modern phenomenon, but rapid and historic transformation of replaced by predominantly urban culture. The last major change was the accumulation of hunters- gatherers into villages many thousand years ago. Village is characterized by common bloodlines, I timate relationships and communal behaviour whereas urban culture is characterized by distant bloodlines, unfamiliar relations, and competitive behaviour. This unprecedented movement of people is forecasted to continue and intensity in the next few decades. The process of urbanization is increasing in both the developed and developing countries. However, rapid urbanisation in particular the growth of large cities and the associated problems of unemployment, poverty, inadequate health, poor sanitation, urban slums and environmental degradation pose a formidable challenge in many developing countries. Available statistics shows that more than half of the world 6.6 billion people live in urban areas, crowded into 3% of the earth’s land area (UNFPA, 1993). The proportion of the world population in urban areas was less than 5% in 1800, it increased to 47% in 2000. And its expected to reach 65% in 2030 (United Nations, 1981). However, more than 90% of the future population growth will be concentrated in cities in developing countries and a large percentage of this population will be poor. In Africa and Asia where urbanization is still considerably lower (40 percent), both are expected to be 54% urban by 2025 (UN 1995, 2002).
Although urbanization is the driving force for modernization, economic growth and development not only in Nigeria but in different part of the world, however , there is increasing concern about the effects of expanding cities, principally on han health, livelihoods and the environmenta. The implications of rapid urbanization and demographic trends for employment, food security, water supply, shelter a d sanitation especially the disposal of wastes (Solid and liquid) that cities produce are staggering (UNCED, 1992).
Urbanization is the outcome of social, economic and political developments that lead to urban concentration and growth of large cities, changes in land use and transformation from rural to urban metropolitan pattern of organization a.d governance. Moreover, the concept of urbanization is not about simply increasing the number of urban residents or panding the area of cities, more importantly; It is about a complete change from rural to urban style in terms of industry structures, employment, living standard and social security. Urbanization is an important aspect of human activities in influencing environmental system. During the process of urbanization, reflectivity of land surface is violently changed when large amount of natural or agricultural lands are converted to built up surfaces. Although, Africa is fast urbanizing, with such mega cities with about 10 million inhabitants or more are few. Urbanization also finds expression principally in outward expansion of the built up areas and conversion of agricultural land into much residential issues.
1.2 Problem Statement
According to Mohammed et al. (2015), the question that arises is whether the current trend in urban growth is sustainable considering the environmental degradation, especially in the developing countries. Hence, there is need to evaluate the impact of urbanization, its effects and disruptions on Abuja which is the Federal capital territory of Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The major objective of this research is an evaluation on the impact of urbanization its effects and disruptions on Abuja.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is urbanization?
- What are its effects in Nigeria?
- How does urbanization affect the major cities in Nigeria?
1.5 Significance of the study
This research gives a clear insight into the impact of urbanization, its effect a.d disruptions on Nigeria cities using Abuja as a case study.
1.6 Scope of the study
The research focus on the evaluation of the impact of urbanization, it’s effects and disruptions on Nigerian cities a case study of Abuja.
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