An Evaluation Of The Impact Of Training And Development Policy On Staff Productivity In The Public Service
The need for an organization to ensure that its workers /civil servant are sent periodically for appropriate training cannot be over employ sized.
The success of an organization depends on its workers whose skills and attitude contribute immensely. The aim of this study therefore is to bring to notice of employers the importance of periodical training of its civil servant.
In undertaking this project, the researcher has provided as clearly as possible all explanations definitional and functions required for understanding of the topic and titled treated herein. This project will be beneficial to Ogun public service and also to other Business organization government co-operation and Para stables.
1.1 Background of the Study
In spite various government interventions and efforts; the Nigerian public sector’s score-card has remained poor performance and inefficiency. Considering the important role of training and development in bringing the Nigerian public service to an enviable height, if those that are expected to execute policies of the government and manage public affairs are not well trained and knowledgeable, there would definitely be a problem.
Obviously the achievement of the objectives for which they were employed might be affected. As the popular Adage says, “If a naked man promises you clothes, ask him which one”. Where the human capital is not planned, organizations will be confronted with the inability to deliver quality service, inability to attract and retain the people required and difficulty in the development and training of highly talented personnel. Training on the Job and some form of in-service training are examples of training being designed or intended to develop the knowledge or expertise, greater confidence and a higher degree of performance. The principal intention of training is to equip people with the knowledge required to qualify them for a particular position of employment or to improve their skills and efficient in the position they already hold. Staff development, on the hand, implies growth and the acquisition of wide experience for future strategies advantage of the organization.
Training is therefore a key element for improved organizational effectiveness; it increases the level of individual and organizational competences. It helps to reconcile the gap between what should happen and what is happening – between desired targets or standards and actual levels of work performance. Thus the study focuses on the impact of training and development on staff productivity in the public sector in Nigeria, with a case study of the impact of training and development on staff productivity in ogun state public service
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The concept of staff productivity and of continuous staff productivity remains a critical factor for the continuous development of the public service in Nigeria. However inspite of numerous efforts of government through training and retraining, the goal is still far from being reached.
Staff productivity in terms of quality output of goods and services remain fundamental for the development of the public service and the economy at large in Nigeria.
Therefore training and development must be a continuous program as a means of enhancing the acquisition and improvement of new skill and knowledge. But the problem that lies shows that the cost incurred in training and development is not yielding the commensurate results. Therefore it is pertinent to evaluate the nature of our training and development program with a view to determining its impact on staff productivity. Therefore the problem confronting this research is to evaluate the impact of training and development policy on staff productivity in the public service with a case appraisal of the impact of training and development policy in the ogun state public service.
1.3 Research Questions
- What is the nature of training and development
- What is the nature of training and development policy in Nigeria
- What is the nature and measure of staff productivity in the public service
- What is the nature of the impact of training and development on staff productivity in the public service
- What is the nature of the impact of training and development on staff productivity in ogun state public service
1.4 Objective Of The Study
- To determine the nature of training and development in the public service
- To determine the nature of staff productivity in the public service
- To determine the nature of training and development policy in the public service
- To determine the impact of training and development policy on staff productivity in the public service.
- To determine the impact of training and development on staff productivity in the ogun state public service.
1.5 Significance of the Study
- The study shall provide a detail analysis on the structure of staff training and development, training and development policy as well as appraise
- The impact of training and development policy on staff productivity.
- It shall serve a source of information on issues of training and development policy in the public service in Nigeria
1.6 Statement of Hypothesis
- Ho Staff productivity in ogun state public service is low
Hi Staff productivity in ogun state public service is high
- Ho Training and Development in ogun state public service is low
Hi Training and development in ogun state public service is high
- Ho The impact of training and development policy on staff productivity in ogun is low
Hi The impact of training and development policy on staff productivity in ogun is high
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study focuses on the evaluation of the impact of training and development policy on staff productivity in the public service with a case appraisal of the impact of training and development policy in ogun state public service
1.8 Definition of Terms
Fanibuyan (2001) defines training as the systematic process of altering the behaviour and or attitudes of employees in a direction to increase organizational goals and development as programme generally aimed at educating supervisory employees above and beyond the immediate technical requirement of the job and have a main objective of the improvement of the effective performance of all managers. Training is the application of gained knowledge and experience (Punia&Saurabh, 2013). Training can be defined as organized activity aimed at imparting information and/or instructions to improve the recipient’s performance or to help him or her attain a required level of knowledge or skill (Appiah et al, 2013).
Development involves preparing employees for higher responsibilities in future. Development according to Ezeuwa (2009) can be seen as the use of human resources to quantitatively change man’s physical and biological environments to his benefits or ever seen as involving the introduction of new ideas into the social structure and causing alterations on the patterns of the organization and social structure. To develop staff, (Daniels, 2003) simply refers to make them grow with the company so that they can be fitted for available higher positions within their capacity. Development deals with improving human relations and interpersonal (Iwuoha,2009).
Orientation / Induction Training
This is given immediately after employment to introduce the new extension staff members to their position.
This is mainly concerned with acquainting new employees with the organization. This training is aimed at getting all new entrants familiarize with the organization’s goals, structure, culture, work standard and other conditions of employment
This is appropriate for newly recruited personnel; every staff member needs some professional knowledge about various rules and regulations of the government, financial transaction, administrative capability, communication skills, report writing, leadership ability, etc
Job Instruction Training
Job instruction training is received directly on the job, and so it is often called “on-the job” training. It is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. A trainer, supervisor, or co-worker serves as the instructor. When it is properly planned and executed, this method includes each of the learning principles (Demetra et al, 2008).
Career Development Training
Career development is the ongoing acquisition or refinement of skills and knowledge, including job mastery and professional development, coupled with career planning activities. Job mastery skills are those that are necessary to successfully perform one’s job. Professional development skills are the skills and knowledge that go beyond the scope of the employee’s job description, although they may indirectly improve job performance
Maintenance / Refresher Training
This keeps specialists, administrators, accountants, supervisors and frontline workers updated and enables them add to the knowledge and skills they have already.
The management and leadership development process is flexible and continuous, linking an individual’s development to the goals of the job and the organization. Management development programs on campus give you the opportunity to develop a broad base of skills and knowledge that can be applied to many jobs on campus. D&T’s management development curriculum is changing. The overarching goal is a comprehensive curriculum for managers and supervisors to develop the necessary core competencies to become excellent leaders.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
The aim of this study is to determine whether motivation is effective in achieving higher productivity among workers in Ogun state Public service, other relevant areas which the study highlighted are: the reaction of the workers towards their duties when motivation is employed by the employer and how the managers can apply motivational theories of management in their attempt to direct the job behaviour of workers towards the goals of their establishment.
The general description of the area of study, which depicted the inevitability of motivation in achieving higher productivity in an organization, was stated. In the course of the study, statement of problem such as; workers leaving the organization due to poor motivation, their unwillingness to perform their duties well and how to motivate them to achieving desired productivity level were pointed out. To ascertain the application of the motivational techniques by the organization concerned and to know the problem inhibiting the success of the workers’ motivation in the organization forms essential part of the objectives of the study. Questions relating to the objectives and problems were also looked at.
The study looked into some review literatures that covered different models and theories on motivation by different scholars, various definitions given by several management scholars, different means of motivating workers or simply type of motivation and the importance of motivation. Various textbooks, journals, articles and other scholarly materials were used to get terms, ideas, concepts and academic as well as professional viewpoints.
The management team of Ogun state Public service, together with important officers of the organization were selected as the study population with the use of simple random sampling. Both primary and secondary data were also used for this research work. The primary data was based on questionnaire while the secondary data was based on published and unpublished works. The data collected were processed and analyzed through the use of t-test statistics.
Human resources (personnel) in any organization remain the most invaluable asset for growth and development, hence training and retraining is essential components of manpower development. Training and personnel development is a mixture of activities aimed at improving the productivity of personnel in organizations for the attainment of continuous improvement in productivity. Training and human development assists workers to learn how to use the resources in an approve way that allows organization to meet its desired output. Civil servantare required to perform varied competences in their profession that will make then saleable in the labor market. It is the possession of these skills needed by the labour market that will enable them contribute maximally to Manufacturing firm s in Ogun and national development of the Nigerian nation. However, for the organization and government to make training and personnel development to become effective in the service cycle, they have to tackle the challenges of introducing new orientations on training contents, training evaluation, attitudes to training and training utilization.
The essence of training and development in Manufacturing firms in Ogun cannot be over emphasized. It has been observed that training is very important in every aspect of an organization. It enhances the efficiency of civil servant, increases output and motivates workers for better productivity.
It has been discovered that training and human development are not isolated from human resources. Even in the advanced countries and in most computerized organization, training and development cannot be overlooked because; human are the ones to operate this equipment.
From the findings, the following recommendations were made:
Organization is seen to be effective and efficient if there is demonstrable increase in productivity, therefore, any training and personnel development must be based on proper analysis of its contribution to the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization. Civil servant should be expose to regular professional training areas such as foundation, career or development, preservice and off-the-job-pupilage training as to enhance their productivity in the organization. It is also necessary for the civil servant to be exposed to seminars, conferences and workshops to enable them keep abreast with the challenges posed by modern business offices.
The development programmes of managers should be done on yearly or regular basis; hence training involves systematic, professional and development of skills, knowledge and attitude necessary for performing specific schedule of duties. There should be free flow of information to enable all the civil servant aware of the training and development policies available both internally and externally.
There should be effective utilization of integration of resources, physical and human will to yield high output or productivity. Also, on-the-job and in-house methods of training should be used extensively by organizations and government, especially in the training of junior civil servant as they tend to be cheaper and more effective.
Ogun state Public service should also introduce reward system for outstanding productivity so as to motivate workers to always put in their best during each training period. This will assist them in identifying those civil servant that has special skills and talents. Ogun state Public service should expose all their civil servant to training at least once in every year. This will make the workers to meet up with the changes in their services and work processes as may be driven by the competitive environment.
Instead of downsizing those workers with years of experience and recruiting new ones, Manufacturing firms in Ogun should rather invest in training and development of their experienced civil servant. This will help them to reduce the cost of frequent recruitment and selection.
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