Evaluation Of The Impact Of Head Teachers’ Leadership Styles On Teachers’ Job Performance In Selected Primary Schools
1.1 Background of the Study
Leadership is regarded as one of the most important aspects of any organization’s success. As a result, it is critical for a leader to comprehend what successful leadership includes. Sergon (2005) defines leadership style as “the method and attitude with which one gives direction, implements goals, and motivates others.” It covers the whole pattern of explicit and implicit behaviors taken by their leader, as viewed by the workforce. Autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire leadership types were identified by Mirkamal (2005). According to Fan (2009), school success is determined by four distinct leadership styles: authoritarian, democratic, transformational, and laissez-faire. The autocratic leadership style looks to be self-centered and allows for minimal participation of subordinates in decision-making, whereas the democratic leadership style is more people-oriented and relies on subordinate engagement (Mgbodile, 2004). Mexico and Taiwan have adopted autocratic leadership styles, whilst South Korea and the United States have adopted democratic leadership styles. Only democratic leadership style, according to Mitchelson (2003), has a direct and substantial relationship with performance in the United States. According to Fan (2009), transformational leadership gives special attention to the requirements of subordinates for growth and accomplishment, making leaders who utilize this style proactive. Laissez-faire leadership refers to a style of leadership that allows for free expression of ideas and opinions without intervention from the leader. Secondary schools are key institutions in the performance of the state’s educational policy all over the world, including Nigeria. As a formal leadership, it has a bureaucratic administrative framework with set rules and regulations, with the goal of providing the necessary chances for the education and development of the school’s learners and employees, and is generally led by the principle. Danladi (2009) characterized education as a critical instrument in the development of learners, via the transfer of valuable qualities such as skills, information, and planned activities that may help learners realize their full potential for the benefit of society. As a result, education promotes the development of citizens, which is accomplished via the execution of state-mandated school curriculum and education policies. The education strategy of Nigeria is based on five cardinal goals: a free and democratic society; a just and egalitarian society; a unified, robust, and self-reliant nation; a vast and dynamic economy; and a place full of shining chances for all inhabitants. FGN, FGN, FGN (2004). Furthermore, Olatunji (2015, p. 396) claimed that Nigeria’s educational philosophy is complicated, requiring proper administrative procedures to ensure its actual implementation in the country. Effective leadership in all educational institutions in Nigeria, especially secondary schools, is required to achieve both the Nigerian education policy and philosophy of education. Secondary schools provide institutional resources for secondary education and require competent principal leadership to guarantee that the performance’s objectives are met. Leadership, according to Adwella (2014), is an operational technique for persuading individuals to work voluntarily and enthusiastically toward the fulfillment of organizational goals, which includes secondary schools. According to Aghenta (2001), leadership is the process of a leader influencing the activities of a group of people in order to achieve an organizational goal. It refers to the act of completing tasks with the help and collaboration of others. As a result, leadership is an important tool in the development and implementation of organizational policies, including educational policies and philosophy in secondary schools throughout the state, and the leadership style and traits used by the leader have an impact on the job performance of the organization’s employees (Yahaya, 2014). Job happiness is influenced by different leadership styles. In South Carolina, for example, Fan (2009) investigated principals’ leadership styles and teacher job satisfaction, finding that teachers favored transformational leadership, which involves them in decision-making, rather than being forced into conformity by their administrators. Teachers, on the other hand, seemed to have apparent conflicts when they praised leaders who were described as having democratic leadership styles as well as those who were described as having forceful leadership styles. Iqbal (2010) found that democratic leadership style prevailed over authoritarian leadership style in the province of Punjab, Pakistan (Dickson, 2013). Only 18% of school principals have authoritarian leadership styles, whereas 82% have democratic leadership styles (Osman, 2010). Teachers who worked under democratic leadership were more satisfied than those who worked under authoritarian leadership, according to the study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Some principals appear to have an authoritarian leadership style (Adeyemi, 2010). Some people are more democratic than others (Akerele, 2007). Others, on the other hand, appear to follow a laissez-faire leadership style (Ige, 2001). These leadership styles tend to have a beneficial or bad impact on the school’s administration. Other research, such as Iqbal’s, have looked at head teachers’ leadership styles in relation to KCSE test performance (2010). Muchina (2009) investigated the impact of head teachers’ leadership styles on secondary school teachers’ motivation in Nigeria. Teachers in elementary schools have been transferring away from teaching to other professions, while some have retired early, according to common observations in the school system (Fan, 2009). This evolution might have occurred for a variety of causes. One of these factors might be the perception that teachers’ welfare is low, as well as their working circumstances, which appear to be inferior to those of their civil service counterparts.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The overall goal of this research is to investigate the impact of head teachers’ leadership styles on teachers’ job performance in selected primary schools in the Akko LGA. The following are some of the study’s particular goals:
- Determine the leadership style used by elementary schools in the Akko LGA.
- To find out how democratic leadership styles of head teachers affect primary school teachers’ work satisfaction in Akko LGA.
- To determine the impact of head teachers’ autocratic leadership style on the work satisfaction of primary school teachers in Akko LGA.
- To investigate the impact of head teachers’ laissez-faire leadership style on the work satisfaction of primary school teachers in Akko LGA.
- To determine the impact of transformative leadership on the work satisfaction of primary school teachers in Akko LGA.
- To determine the influence of a head teacher’s leadership style on the rate of teacher turnover in Akko LGA’s primary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the leadership styles used by elementary schools in the Akko LGA?
- What are the democratic leadership styles of head teachers affect primary school teachers’ work satisfaction in Akko LGA?
- What are the impacts of head teachers’ autocratic leadership style on the work satisfaction of primary school teachers in Akko LGA?
- What are the impacts of head teachers’ laissez-faire leadership style on the work satisfaction of primary school teachers in Akko LGA?
- What is the impact of transformative leadership on the work satisfaction of primary school teachers in Akko LGA?
- What is the influence of a head teacher’s leadership style on the rate of teacher turnover in Akko LGA’s primary schools?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This research will help us understand the impact and impacts of a principal’s leadership style on teacher job performance, as well as how various styles improve and enhance teacher performance. This work will also serve as a reference for other researchers who desire to continue or begin similar research.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The impact of teachers’ leadership styles on their job performance will be examined in depth in this research project. This study is delimited to Akko Local Government Area in Gombe State, Nigeria.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Is a term that refers to a strong effect or influence.
A leader’s leadership style is how he or she gives orders, implements plans, and motivates others. Several authors have claimed that leaders in politics, business, and other sectors display a variety of leadership styles.
The activity or process of completing a task or function.
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