Evaluation Of Guidance And Counselling Programme In Some Selected Schools
This study tends to evaluate the guidance and counseling programme in some selected secondary school in Loko Development Area inspectorate. The study revealed that guidance and counseling programme has made positive impact in the life of the student with (77.3%) agree as most of the counselors organized career week treated them like mothers and fathers and for all advice and assisted them for career choice on what they will become in future through subject choice (with 54.1%) even though time for counseling is inadequate with other problem that may not be avoided, the researcher recommended that adequate measures should be made for the provision of professional and trained counselors with good enabling environment for them to work.
1.1 Background of the Study
Guidance and counselling is a field of study that has been introduced in our school curriculum in order to produce professionally trained personnel who will render retentive and problem solving services to individuals or group in all area of life shows that its services are needed almost every where both hospitals, nursing home, rehabilitation centre, schools, banks, social welfare’ units, police stations, church and mosque e.t.c although here in Nigeria, the services of guidance and counselling is most pronounced in the schools. The knowledge of guidance and counseling is most pronounce who practically applied to students to guide tern against problem that might arise due to wrong decision making and action and also aim at proffering solution to existing problems. The existence of guidance “and counselling can be said to be as old as mankind, right from creation, man has never been all-knowing; he lacks knowledge in one things or the other and therefore seeks help from other people towards the solution of his problems. Traditionally, the importance of guidance and counselling cannot be over emphasized people sought for advice and help from other who are more knowledgeable, experienced or rise from solution of their problems, the traditional counselling could be those men and women who possessed supernatural power of healing, foreseeing the future and mediating between man and the god, these people served as consultant and then preferred solution to most of the problem brought before them due to the simplicity of man and his environment then. However, due to the complexity of the environment and the society at large, the overall philosophy and objectives of the nation of the word, the service provided by the traditional counseling apparently become inadequate. Various problems and confusion are encountered by people in all areas of human Endeavour as Rocher (1991 .1) notes; With the tremendous increase in the number of students in the institution of higher learning extremely wide range of course of study and job opportunities, rapid charging mo/work of work and great complexity of students needs and problems, there is a definite need for providing a fine nucleus of guidance and counseling by matured, experience and professionally qualified person for the development of all the unique potentialities of the students for individual fulfillment in particular and social (p1) and natural upliftment in Nigeria.This fact makes tend to have professionally trained guidance and counseling personnel in all works of life especially in our Educational institution very compelling this win minimized what would have been in mistakes to a very minimal and bearable degree. From the aforesaid, there is no doubt that the realization of our Education institution objectives depends mostly on a full guidance and counseling programme. The Federal Government of Nigeria is realized its immense importance of therefore is regarded it’s as a vital tool for the realization of the national objective and clearly state in that National Policy on Education that; In view of apparent ignorance of many young people about career prospects and in view of personality maladjustment among school children, career offices and counseling will be appointed in post primary institution. (F.G.N 1998 p43). Base on this, “counseling is expected to be on integral cost effective component of the Educational process aimed at curbing wastage of talent and enhancing appropriate decision making and personal adjustment” According to Denga (1986) “it was also envisaged tat by 1980, a school in Nigeria”.
However, in spite of this laudable gesture by the Federal Government and the higher expectation and aspiration of people, there seen to have been no impressive impact of Educational institution. Many students clue to parental, peer groups, societal (environmental) influenced among other reasons make devastating mistakes that hamper their happiness in life and add to the already existing societal problem. It is therefore very pertinent that most of the ill and vice in our society should be check through our institutions of learning to achieve this effort should be made to improve the situation through guidance and counseling programme school especially in our secondary school where most of the Educational and societal problems have their foundation. To this effort therefore, the Federal Government of Nigeria come up with the National policy on Education with, emphasis on the introduction of guidance and counseling in our schools. This fact gives rise to this study which focuses attention on the evaluation of guidance and counseling programmes in secondary school in Nasarawa state. According to the information made available by Mallam A. in his book titled “Guidance and counselling beginners guidance (page 11) (2000) the practice of guidance and counselling is not new in the society right from the creation and early time, the need for man to exist well in his society and satisfy his wants have been there, man exist in ignorance and when guided, he performs and achieves his optimum goals. Also in the traditional society our fore fathers practiced guidance and counselling, they led their children through a vocation e.g Fishing, caving, weaving and wood cutting. But modem guidance and counselling as practiced now in our school system originated for America in the Late Eighteen ninety (1890s). It started with complicated environment force couple with social force such as Family disorganization, mental / health movement programme the increasing student population problem who terribly, literogeneous terms of their learning readiness, professional and psychological worries and many other problems that live of the people. Frank Parson of Boston viewed the above problem and saw the need for starting a vocational guidance in 1908 whom today is regarded as the Father of guidance. Frank Parson wrote a book on choosing a career or a vocation in 1909. In his book parson (1908) outlined the three phases in dealing with problems of vocational choice as follows;
- Knowing the person: through understanding of the person through the data collected about him or her.
- Knowing the job: Understanding the work and the nature of the desired job entry requirement, condition for advancement and other remunerations.
- Making a match between the person and job based on a reasoned consideration of the two factor above
Another notable contributor to the movement was Jessie B. Danes who applied the process of career in choice laid down by person to locate himself in teaching profession. In addition he emphasized the development of character in his book, moral and vocational guidance services in settle Washington where she helped students to excel in the stiff competition to find a place in life since then guidance and counselling as a discipline has been adopted in many countries of the word including Nigeria by Annay Reed established.
The Historical Developmentof Guidance and Counselling in Nigeria
However, the development of guidance and counselling in Nigeria according to Mallam A. Yakubu (2000) is started at the close of 1959 when a group of reverend Irish sisters at St. Theresa’s college, Oko-Ado, ion Ibadan saw the need for vocational guidance of the final year school. Certificate female student of their college. Then invited twenty (20) outsiders who were Government officials from the ministries and some prominent men from Ibadan community to advice them on placing of sixty (60) of their girls leaving school that December, 1959. These men were not trained counselors but they definitely know more about the emerging word of work than the students and the religious sisters. This led to the establishment of Ibadan career council in 1961. The same body became Nigeria career council in 1967. According to Akingboye (1907) and Donga (1983) can be traced back to the effort of the publication in 1977 of the National policy on Education which under scoped the need for the programme. It also outlined its significance toward the effective implementation of the Nation’s now Education policy the 6-3-34 system. This new system of Education gives the students an ample opportunity to use the first three years of secondary school Education to explore all the subject areas both in art and, science to determine where be or she fits in well. The student is also exposed to different vocations to make himself retired after his Education. Thus, the formation of guidance and counselling body called Nigeria career counselling in 1967 for the dissemination of career information and attending to problems relevant to careers. So to support this white man in 1961 to serve in the Federal ministry of Education. This source has it that this official gesture went a long way to stimulate and guidance and counselling in the then western Nigeria which has already established an advised teachers collage at Ibadan that the fist worship on vocational guidance and counselling in Nigeria was organized in 1961 by the Federal ministry of Education. From all indication, it can be deduced that the first indigenous few fledge department of guidance and counselling in Nigeria started at the University of 1.badan in 1975 and the inauguration of the counselling association of Nigeria (CASSON) in 1967 at the some university. Today, one is glad to observe that many universities in Nigeria – Ibadan, Jog, Ilorin, Nsuka, Benin, Zaria, Abuja, among other have programmes for training of guidance and counselling specialists. However, there are still some teaching problems militating against its defective’s growth. Examples of those problems are: – Lack of fund, lack of office accommodation, and shortage of training counselors and so on this is fully described in chapter two
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The emergence of guidance and counselling in our Educational systems is very timely given the type of society we found ourselves. Despite it’s a numerous advantages to the systems, the discipline if aced with a lot of problems which are militating against its effective – hence this research undertake her research work to evaluate the guidance and counselling programme in some selected secondary schools in Lafia area inspectorate office, Nasarawa state.
To do this the researcher will seek the answer to:
- Area the trained personnel available?
- Area the necessary facilities to make the job of the guidance and counselling effectives provided?
1.3 Objective of the Study
This study is intended to evaluate the guidance and counselling programmed in secondary schools under study. To achieve her objective, the researcher will critically examine the way and manner the programme is run in the state so- as to:
- Determine the extent of development of the programme in the area under study
- Identify the major factor affecting the performance in the state.
- Gives suggestion on how to improves on the programme.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: there are no enough funds for the counselors to discharge their professional duties
H1: there are enough funds for the counselors to discharge their professional duties.
- H02: there is no relationship between the guidance and counseling program and student efficiency.
H2: there is a relationship between the guidance and counseling program and student efficiency
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study is important because if diligently carried out will serve as a tool to identify the extreme of development of guidance and counselling programme in the state and identify the major fact that hampers its effectives utilization as one of the Educational for services iii the realization of the Nation objective utilization as and goal.
The result of the finding will direct all individual or group to the contribute positively to the realization of the general objective of the new Educational objectives.
So for, the students; this research wok will make him enhance and self fulfillment because it will help him to appreciate the guidance and counselling services and to use it to achieves his life goals.
For the parents this research work Will makes tern to re-organized themselves and modify their demands and expectation on the students in the light of changing friend in the society. For the principal it will make him realized that guidance and counseling is a relevant tool to the realization of Education objectives is contained in the 6-3-3-4 system of Education. It will also help him to maintain and evaluate attitudes of student to words the performance.
The principal promotes guidance programme for his school e.g he present the proposals and report to the Government through the ministry of Education on the require for guidance service in his school.
For Teacher, it will enable him know his defined roles in the Education of the student and avoid duplication of efforts. For Government, it will help to have first hand information on the handicaps of the schools and striver to provide necessary assistance for effective guidance and counselling programmes.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The researcher intends to evaluate the guidance and counselling programme in some selected secondary in Loko Development Area office Nasarawa states. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities
1.7 Definition of the Study
For the purpose of clarification and easy understanding, the researcher has chosen, to define some of the terms used in this study as they relate to Education.
Is assistance made available by personally qualified and adequately trained man and woman to an individual of any age to help him manage his own activities, develop his own point of views, maker his own decision and carry his own burden” Crow and Crew (1960).
A process by which a person with problem is helped by a professional counselor or voluntarily change his behaviour clarify his attitude, Ideas and goals so that his problem may be solved” Idowu (1986). It is a one to one face to face in relationship between a counselor and a client.
Guidance and Counselling:
This is an Educational service given to the student to help them most their need, aspirations, objectives and goals.
One who is professionally trained and qualified to provide help toward solving the problem of a trouble person who cannot cope with his problem alone and need a qualified person to
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain evaluation of guidance and counseling programme in some selected schools. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of guidance and counseling programme in some selected schools
This study was on evaluation of guidance and counseling programme in some selected schools. Three objectives were raised which included: Determine the extent of development of the programme in the area under study, identify the major factor affecting the performance in the state, gives suggestion on how to improves on the programme. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools Loko Development Area office Nasarawa states. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principals administration, non teaching staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
Based on the findings, the study makes the following conclusions:
- Secondary schools in the study area differ in the number of guidance and counselling services that they have implemented.
- Teacher counsellors have low levels of training in guidance and counselling.
- Stakeholders adequately support guidance and counselling programme in the schools.
- Students are aware of the role and importance of career counselling in their schools.
- There is low academic performance by majority of the students.
- Guidance and counselling programme has a positive impact on the academic performance of students.
From the above conclusions, the study makes the following recommendations:
- There is need for the teacher counsellors to implement all the services required for a guidance and counselling programme.
- There is need to improve the level of training of teacher counsellors in guidance and counselling.
- Teacher counsellors should take advantage of the positive attitude of the students to enhance career counselling in their schools.
- Guidance and counselling programme should be strengthened in order to improve the academic performance of secondary schools in the area.
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