An Evaluation Of Factors Involved In Student’s Choice Of Career In Senior Secondary Schools

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An Evaluation Of Factors Involved In Student’s Choice Of Career In Senior Secondary Schools


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education, in its broadest meaning, is a kind of learning in which a group of people’s information, skills, attitudes, beliefs, and habits are passed down from generation to generation via narrative, discussion, teaching, training, and research ( Assmann, 2002). Informal transfer of such knowledge from one human being to another may also be considered education. Nigeria’s new national education policy views education as a tool for transformation and national development. Inequality is reduced through education. It raises conventional social strata in a society. Increase the distribution of income by raising the intent poverty of human resources while they are still accessible to society. It’s also thought of as a framework for social, economic, and technological progress. In light of these considerations, it is apparent that education is essential and important to the growth of all countries. In all nations, education is given top emphasis (Assmann, 2002).

A student’s career choice is one of the most crucial decisions he will make in his life. This decision will have an influence on them for the rest of their life. Career is incredibly important in an individual’s life since it dictates the pattern of his or her income and influences the individual’s personality and perspective of life. As a result, a career is a lifelong quest for achievement. It is the series of key positions held by a person throughout the course of his life. The word “career” is generally defined as all similar tasks individuals play in ensuring a living, including students, parents, workers, retirees, and employers. According to Her (1973), a person’s career is the sum of his or her experiences in which he or she learns about and prepares to participate in work as part of his or her way of life. In a nutshell, a person’s career is the sum of all the labor he or she undertakes to make a livelihood over his or her lifetime. It is therefore beneficial to think as far as possible in order to achieve this fit. As a result, everyone must make a professional decision. It is very difficult to make a career decision, particularly when one’s livelihood is at stake. In the face of rapidly changing technology and the information industry, choosing a career has become a difficult challenge for students. According to the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2005), a career is a job or a succession of jobs that you undertake during your working life. As a result, deciding on a profession is essentially the same as deciding on a life employment. Personality, passion, self-concept, identity, globalization, socialization, role model, social support, and accessible resources such as knowledge and money all influence career choice (Kerka 2000). Religion, peer group, and certain environmental influences were found by Onayase and Onayase, (2009) in their inquiry into additional factors that might influence profession choice. All jobs, however, have their own set of curriculum requirements, personality traits, and personal qualities. Before a person can be recognized as qualified for a given vocation, all of these must be thoroughly evaluated (Onayase and Onayase, 2009). To keep up with changing socioeconomic circumstances, one must not only perform proper career planning but also do extensive job study before making a professional decision (Wattles, 2009). According to Hewitt (2010), most people are influenced by their parents’ career preferences, others flow with the career opportunities that their educational choices have provided, some choose to follow their passion regardless of how much or little it will pay them, and others choose the career that pays well. According to Mcquaid and Bond (2003), a variety of characteristics such as ethnic origin, years in school, and degree of success might influence a student’s judgment of suitability for a certain career. Students, on the other hand, are identified by a mix of personal talents, personality type, and other characteristics (Okafor 2012). As a result, variables influencing profession choice might be internal, extrinsic, or both. A variety of elements have been shown to influence students’ perceptions of their suitability for a certain vocation. Parental support and encouragement, for example, have been demonstrated to have an impact on profession choice. To satisfy their parents, children may pick what their parents want (Taylor et al., 2004). According to Okafor (2012), the choice of a vocation is influenced by parents, friends, and demographic variance. He also said that a student’s job decision may be influenced by their parents’ educational and professional backgrounds since some students may consider whether or not to pursue their parent’s employment. What kids watch on television may have an impact on their job choices. Some jobs need you to have a personality that matches the job’s requirements. When these children graduate from high school, however, some of them go into careers that are completely unrelated to the one they picked and prepared for. As a result, the importance of a guidance counselor in schools cannot be overstated. The purpose of this research is to look at the variables that influence senior high school students’ profession choices in Rivers State, with a focus on a few schools in the Obio Apkor Local Government Area. With the introduction of digital technology, the rise of the post-industrial revolution, and employment competitiveness, career choice has become a sophisticated science. In the past, it was standard practice to locate feudalism and turn it into a family affair, with the son of a blacksmith destined to become a blacksmith and a feudal born a leader. Industrialization and post-industrialization have made it feasible for the average individual to become wealthier if they have the necessary skills and knowledge. To keep up with changing socioeconomic circumstances, one must not only perform proper career planning but also do extensive job study before making a professional decision (Wattles, 2009).

Tuché (2000) is correct in advising kids to consider their job options in secondary school, since they will need career assistance. “Career convention or career conference,” according to Ipaye (1983), is the necessity to debate the need to pick a life span job with one’s peers, school counselors, parents, and instructors. Career convention, on the other hand, is an instrument of career information, according to him. This happens for a variety of reasons, including the following:

  1. To encourage career exploration and broaden professional horizons.
  2. To assist a person crystallize his choice by focusing attention on a certain career.
  3. To create a setting in which parents may meet companies and discuss the prospects they provide on the one hand, and meet career teachers or career officers on the other side to share their perspectives.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is general knowledge that education is the foundation for a successful career. However, it is concerning to see that a significant proportion of young school leavers choose occupations unrelated to their educational subject of study. Nonetheless, a small percentage of people pursue careers in their fields of study, particularly those who pursue professional degrees such as law, medicine, or geology(Tuché, 2000). As a result, it shows that areas of study other than professional disciplines are not a suitable career preparing step or that their curricula have not instilled the necessary measures for students to successfully transition into occupational professions. It’s also worth noting that the majority of young school leavers pursuing professional degrees come from well-to-do families that can afford it. Private secondary schools charge expensive tuition costs, but the majority of students pursuing general studies are from low-income or average-income families, therefore they mostly attend government secondary schools because of the cheap tuition rates (Tuché , 2000).

Secondary school students have struggled with deciding on a professional path, leading them to make the incorrect decision, and there are a variety of variables to blame. This study is to vividly examine factors factors involved in student’s choice of career in senior secondary schools.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The general objective of the study is to evaluate the factors involved in student’s choice of career in senior secondary schools.

The specific objective of the study is as follows:

  1. To examine if parental occupation influences a students choice of career.
  2. To investigate if parental socio-economic status is involved in influencing a student choice of career.
  3. To find out if opportunity factors affect career choice among students.
  4. To evaluate if environmental factors affect career choice among students.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide this study:

  1. Does parental occupation influences a students choice of career?
  2. Does parental socio-economic status is involved in influencing a student choice of career?
  3. Does opportunity factors affect career choice among students?
  4. Does environmental factors affect career choice among students?

1.5 Scope of the Study

The study will examine if parental occupation influences a students choice of career. The study will also investigate if parental socio-economic status is involved in influencing a student choice of career. The study will further find out if opportunity factors affect career choice among students. Lastly, the study will evaluate if environmental factors affect career choice among students. Hence this study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Enugu state.


1.6 Significance of the Study

Significance of this research work is to find to what extent the factors influencing choice will influence the student’s choice of career and the attendance performance of students on the subjects that would lead them successfully towards this occupation as a life time Endeavour.

This study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature on factors contributing to career choice among secondary school students.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Just like any other research, unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, and inability to get data were among the constraints the researcher encountered in the cause of this study. Financial constraint was equally faced by the researcher, in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires. Furthermore, time factor pose another constraint because the researcher have to shuttle between writing of the research and engaging in other academic work which made it uneasy for the researcher.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Career:

A chosen pursuit or course of business activity or enterprise, especially one’s professional life or employment that offer advancement and honour.

Choice:

Choice is an interactive decision making workshop that empower teens to achieve academic success in pursuit of their career and life aspirations.

School:

The school is a place where people need to be educated.

Government:

The group of people who govern a country or a state.


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Frequently Asked Questions


What are the factors that influence students’ choice of course?

– Personal or family factors – Cultural factors, which include schools, peer group, age group. In the course of choice of courses to read in the senior secondary schools and universities, a lot of influencing actions or decisions. These general determinates of their choices at this crucial.

How to choose the right career for your students?

The career choice of the students must need to be based on; strong knowledge, complete information, and appropriately guided, matching individual personality type and other intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

How to solve career choice problems facing the students?

The presence of guidance and counselling facilities centres in secondary schools will help to solve career choice problems facing the students.

Can the presence of guidance and counselling facilities centres in secondary schools?

Some findings were also made in this research, which will be of great benefit to the students in the need to establish guidance and counselling facilities centres in senior secondary schools. In conclusion, the presence of guidance and counselling facilities centres in secondary schools will help to solve career choice problems facing the students. 

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