An Evaluation Of The Effectiveness And Efficiency Of Nigeria Health Care Facilities During Post Covid 19 Outbreak

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An Evaluation Of The Effectiveness And Efficiency Of Nigeria Health Care Facilities During Post Covid 19 Outbreak


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effectiveness and efficiency of Nigeria health care facilities during post Covid-19 outbreak using kwara state as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out the whether there was adequate accessibility of healthcare facilities during the covid-19 outbreak, examine the effectiveness of health care facilities during post covid-19 outbreak, and investigate the efficiency of this health care facilities. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of staff of selected primary health care facilities in Kwara state. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. The hypotheses was tested using Chi-square statistical tool.The result of the findings reveals that there was adequate accessibility of healthcare facilities during the covid-19 outbreak. Furthermore, the result of the accessible healthcare facilities were somewhat efficient during the post covid-19 outbreak.Therefore, it is recommended that there is need to ensure that masses have easy access to health care facilities(especially during virus outbreak like the case of Covid-19) by ensuring that health personnel are available when needed. Long waiting times should be discouraged by identifying areas in the health care delivery system that is prone to causing long waiting times with a view to developing alternate health systems that will eliminate long hours of stay in public facilities. This can be achieved by involving consumers of health care in government facilities in decision making process to make the facility more customers oriented. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Nigeria’s constitution establishes three levels of government: the central, 36 semi-autonomous states, and the Federal Capital Territory, as well as 774 local government areas divided into six geopolitical zones. Each state has an elected executive governor, an executive council, and a legislative house with legislative authority. Each state has an elected executive chairperson and elected legislative council members from electoral wards oversee the local government region (LGA). The 774 LGAs are split into 9555 wards, which make up the total population at the lowest levels of government. State governments have a great deal of power and control over how their services are used and used. Every state has a health minister, and each LGA has a health department. The LGA health department’s workforce is administratively determined by the population of the state and municipal governments. In Nigeria, the three levels of the health system (federal, municipal, and local government) have significant jurisdiction and control over resource distribution and use.

Primary health care is described as “essential care based on practical, scientifically sound, and socially acceptable methods and technology, made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community by their full participation, and at a cost that the community and country can afford to maintain at any stage of their development in the spirit of Alma Ata.”

Healthcare was not one of the first topics on the minds of government leaders since the nation achieved independence in 1960. They became most interested in medicine that could treat rather than prevent diseases. However, 15 years later, the National Basic Health Services Scheme (NBHSS) was created, with primary health care at its heart. It was supposed to provide medical services and services, but it overlooked the application of modern technologies and group collaboration. Unfortunately, because of implementation issues, NBHSS stayed just that: a concept. As a result, Nigeria remained without primary health care until 1985. Olikoye Ransome-Kuti was appointed as the new Minister of Health by the Nigerian government in 1985. And that’s when things began to get better.

During his tenure in office, he was able to integrate primary healthcare into all government departments, make childhood immunization free, establish a national health strategy, highlight the importance of preventive medicine, promote vaccination, and launch a nationwide HIV/AIDS program. Although it was rational that community-oriented Primary Healthcare be developed across the tier of government seen to be nearest to the people, the abrupt devolution of primary health care to local government areas may have had negative consequences for quality consistency since that level of government is often considered to have the lowest technological capability. Although well-intentioned, the Federal Government’s presence in the form of model health centers for local government areas ran counter to the recently established concept of devolution of healthcare. Although this action may have been viable under a unitary military government, it was put to the test when democracy was established in 1999.Although the National Primary Healthcare Development Agency (NPHCDA) had some modest successes in its early years, it was not until the advent of democratic government that it began to seriously devise, create, and enforce policies that would protect its position as Nigeria’s primary health care steward.


1.2 Statement of Problem

It is clear that Nigeria’s healthcare reform is being executed haphazardly, resulting in a shaky base. It jumps to the next level without making Primary Healthcare properly; leaving yawning holes that must be filled before a systematic approach can be taken.COVID-19 is a “socio-economic pandemic” as well as a “health pandemic.” There are fewer funds available to deal through, and there are no funds available to finance the health system. There is no good remuneration for fixing health-care services, ensuring that they have electricity, drinking water, and the necessary diagnostic and treatment equipment. Nigeria does not have a pleasant working atmosphere for health staff. They are being pushed out by the pressures of low pay, lack of working facilities, and unemployment in their homeland.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The following are the primary objective of this study:

  1. To find out the whether there was adequate accessibility of healthcare facilities during the covid-19 outbreak.
  2. To examine the effectiveness of health care facilities during post covid-19 outbreak.
  3. To investigate the efficiency of this health care facilities.

1.4 Research Question

  1. Was there adequate accessibility of healthcare facilities during the covid-19 outbreak?
  2. Was the health care facilities been effective during post covid-19 outbreak?
  3. What is the efficiency of these health care facilities?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho: The healthcare facilities was not effective during post covid-19 outbreak.

Ha: The healthcare facilities was effective during post covid-19 outbreak.


1.5 Significance of the Study

This study is of significant to government at all tiers and levels. It is also important to scholars, students and researchers.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The purpose of this research is to examine the effectiveness and efficiency of health care facilities during post covid-19 outbreak and the primary health care facilities will be sample respondent for this study. This study will be using staff of selected primary health care facilities in kwara state as enrolled participants for the survey


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Finance, inadequate research materials and time constraint were the major challenges the researcher encountered during the course of this study


1.9 Definition of Terms

Health Care Facilities:

Health-care facilities are hospitals, primary health-care centers, isolation camps, burn patient units, feeding centers and others. In emergency situations, health-care facilities are often faced with an exceptionally high number of patients, some of whom may require specific medical care (e.g. treatment of chemical poisonings).


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effectiveness and efficiency of Nigeria health care facilities during post Covid-19 outbreak using kwara state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effectiveness and efficiency of Nigeria health care facilities during post Covid-19 outbreak using kwara state as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out the whether there was adequate accessibility of healthcare facilities during the covid-19 outbreak, examine the effectiveness of health care facilities during post covid-19 outbreak, and investigate the efficiency of this health care facilities.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staff of selected primary health care facilities in Kwara state.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. There was adequate accessibility of healthcare facilities during the covid-19 outbreak.
  2. The health care facilities was effective during post covid-19 outbreak.
  3. The accessible healthcare facilities were somewhat efficient during the post covid-19 outbreak.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;

  1. There is need to ensure that masses have easy access to health care facilities(especially during virus outbreak like the case of Covid-19) by ensuring that health personnel are available when needed. Long waiting times should be discouraged by identifying areas in the health care delivery system that is prone to causing long waiting times with a view to developing alternate health systems that will eliminate long hours of stay in public facilities. This can be achieved by involving consumers of health care in government facilities in decision making process to make the facility more customers oriented.
  2. Periodic evaluation of the quality of care provided by the health facilities should be conducted where clients of the facility are asked to rate the quality of care.
  3. Efforts to further upgrade medical equipment and associated workforce skills are needed to sustainably increase access to and utilization.
  4. The cost of health care services should be reduced in other for the residents to have access to it as at when needed.

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