An Evaluation Of E-Learning And Its Impact On Students Academic Performance In Tertiary Institution
Findings have shown that the major reason why students have low or no competence on the application of e-learning to enhance their academic performance is due to lack of basic adequate infrastructure and well equipped compute laboratories in higher education in Nigeria. Findings also showed that e-learning raises interest and performance of students generally. The study investigated the fundamental reasons for e-learning, the roles of e-learning on academic performance how e-teaching and e-learning can improve the quality of education among selected school in Lagos state. The recommendations laid out based on the problem stated is the need for provision of basic adequate infrastructure and well equipped compute laboratories in Lagos state University.
1.1 Background of the Study
E-learning (EL) basically involves use and application of information and communication technologies (ICT) at web sites, personal computers (PCs), tablet PCs, cell phones, learning management system (LMS), televisions (TVs), radios and other means to improve teaching and learning processes. E-learning is really a unifying phrase accustomed to explain the areas associated with the internet, web-based instruction and technologies directions (Oye, Salleh and Iahad, 2010). In that respect, e-learning is substantially becoming a learning strategy in the realms of teaching, practical learning, skills training and development and many corporate functions as evidenced by massive development of web technologies.
Most Higher Education in Lagos State are the responsibility of the government. There are also schools which are managed by private individuals, universities, pressure groups, religious bodies and foreign communities. The majority of Higher Education in Nigeria offer programme. Before the turn of the century, lacked the knowledge of information and communication technologies and its numerous advantages that that we have now. The use of the chalk and board, pictorial charts, drawings and imaginations was used to buttress learning experiences in those days. There was no physical contact with technologies that have now come to improve our knowledge and experiences.
The integration of technological awareness and learning in junior Higher Education is today making significant strides towards use of more interactive e-learning strategies to effectively enhance overall performance of college students and their trained personnel. In many developed economies, several academic institutions make use of extremely interactive e-learning that directly enhances students’ performance (Soleymanpour, Khalkhali and Reayatkoonandeh, 2010). In the recent era, technologies have indeed become devices accustomed to get rid of physical obstacles and allow students to learn at anytime and anywhere without having physical interaction with the instructor. Against this background, e-Learning therefore improves easy access to effective teaching and learning, and thus enhancing students’ academic efficiency.
According to Heeger (2010), e-learning enables numerous University students to take similar programs concurrently. Nowadays, educational systems have grown to enjoy the reasonable instructions in addition to their learning. Research findings indicate that e-learning systems permit instruction method geared to improve top quality related to instruction and students’ academic achievement. Soleymanpour, Khalkhali and Reayatkoonandeh (2010) further elaborate that those private University that have demonstrated remarkable use of e-learning generally perform quite much better than student counterparts who much rely on use of face-to-face communications and physical interactions with their instructors.
Heeger (2010) report shows that University students who generally participate in online or e-learning achieve far better amounts compared to University students who examined traditional methods. Due to emergence of advancements in educational technology, e- learning is currently gaining substantial attention in education and for this reason; several educational institutions are now pursuing application of electronic learning programs. As such, e-learning is continuously becoming well-established in a number of both private and public education institutions in the world nowadays. Most of these education institutions have become aware of the impacts related to e-learning on students’ academic achievement.
However, According to (Olojo, Adewunmi&Ajisola, 2012) E-learning is the use of Internet technologies to enhance knowledge and performance. E-learning technologies offer learners control over content, learning sequence, pace of learning, time, and often media, allowing them to tailor their experiences to meet their personal learning objectives. to manage access to e-learning materials, consensus on technical standardization, and methods for peer review of these resources. E-learning presents numerous research opportunities for faculty, along with continuing challenges for documenting scholarship. Innovations in e-learning technologies point toward a revolution in education, allowing learning to be individualized (adaptive learning), enhancing learners’ interactions with others (collaborative learning), and transforming the role of the teacher.
Moreover, the world is moving at an unimaginable speed in the area of information use and dissemination. According to Olaniyi (2006), with the use of Information technology, knowledge and information can be transferred and cross-fertilized in real time. Hence, the need to pay attention to the way information technology has changed the educational sector through the internet. E-learning has been described as one of the educational challenges of the modern age about which progressive academic institutions must make bold efforts to excel and compete favorably in the global market where education is a commodity.
Also, E-learning has become a new paradigm and a new philosophy in library services as well as educational sector with a mission to serve as a development platform for present-day society based on knowledge. E-Learning can be describe as all forms of electronic supported learning and teaching, which are procedural in character and aim to effect the construction of knowledge with reference to individual experience, practice and knowledge of the learner. Information and communication systems, whether networked or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process.
Today, these communication systems have become an integral part of everyday life with circuits spanning the entire world carrying voice, text, pictures and many other types of information. As recent advances integrated circuits to technology have allowed computers to become recognized, less expensive and widely available for all and sundry.
However, Horton (2005) defined E-learning as the use of internet and digital technologies to create experiences that educate our fellow human beings. E-learning is essentially the computer and network enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. It refers to the use of electronic applications and processes to learn. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM. It is used by the educational Institutions to enhance and support the class room teaching and offering courses to a larger population of learners across the Globe. It can be self-paced or instructor led and includes media in the form of text, images, animations, streaming video and audio.
E-learning has the potential to revolutionize the way we teach and how we learn (DfES, 2003). Advances in ICT have really revolutionized the way we teach and how we learn in many ways; for instance, increasing access to post-secondary instruction, improving the availability of educational resources, and facilitating meaningful interaction among learners. Harnessing the power of ICT has become a critical strategy among institutions eager to offer an affordable, efficient, and flexible learning environment for rapidly growing and diverse communities of learners. Many scholars have viewed distance and online education as alternative, sometimes inferior, education for individuals with limited access to traditional higher education institutions (HEIs) or those not committed to deep learning (Rich, M. 2008). Today, technology enhanced learning, including distance and online instruction, is recognized as a viable tool necessary for preparing citizens to participate in the technologically driven global environment. A multidisciplinary approach to online pedagogical research recognizes the value of technology enhanced teaching and learning as critical in the mix of diverse strategies. Its centrality in the global marketplace has been enhanced by a new culture shared by many educators. A culture diametrically opposed to elicit views of education as a privilege.
E-learning has been used very effectively in university teaching for enhancing the traditional forms of teaching and administration. Students on many courses in many universities now find they have web access to the lecture notes and selected digital resources in support of their study, they have personalized web environments in which they can join discussion forums with their class or group, and this new kind of access gives them much greater flexibility of study.
Therefore, with the proliferation of the various e-learning technologies in universities in Nigeria, it is necessary to delve into issues of the effects and impact of this technology on higher education.
1.2 Statement of Problem
This study was necessitated by the deplorable state of educational system in Nigeria due to the inadequate modern teaching–learning facilities and infrastructures. Most libraries in Nigerian Higher institutions do not possess required audio-visual learning materials and the ones that have are hardly utilised as a result of incessant power outages and sometimes lack of awareness on the part of the students. Formerly, schools depended on the face-to-face classroom teaching and learning experience but the advent of the technology age has brought about gadget that can improve such experiences.. Various learning approaches are being put in place to compensate for the problems occasioned by this traditional learning paradigm.
One of them has been the online instruction, which has the potential to provide opportunities for reflective and integrating learning outcomes. This approach when utilized provides the students with adaptive personalized e-learning experiences because it is a practical approach which can be replicated by the students to improve learning outcomes. It involves the use of mobile technologies such as personal digital assistants and MP3/MP4 player and includes the use of web-based teaching materials, computer rooms or web-sites, webinars, collaborative software and other technologies which can enable the students attend lectures without been physically present. Mavins Beacon application for students, e-mail, blogs, wikis, text chart, computer aided assistant, educational animation, simulation, games, learning management software et cetera are other collaborative packages available.
On the basis, the statement of the problem is to evaluate The Effect Of e-Learning On Higher Education In Nigeria.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The purpose of this study is as follows:
- Establish the impact of e-learning on academic performance of students in Lagos State University.
- Examine the roles of Government and Private sector on the development of E-Learning in Lagos State University.
- Determine the impact of e-learning on the improvement of the quality of education of students’ in Lagos State University.
- Ascertain ICT as a key factor for assessing students’ academic performance
1.4 Research Questions
The study was guided by the following research questions:
- What is the impact of E-Learning on the academic performance of students in Lagos State University ?.
- What are the roles of Government and Private sector in the development of E-Learning in Lagos State University?
- What is the impact of E-learning on the improvement of the quality of education of students in Lagos State University?
- Why is ICT a key factor in assessing students’ academic performance?
1.5 Significance of Study
This study has great significance. First of all, the study findings will provide knowledge and information on the impact of E-learning on education and academic performance of students. It will also provide knowledge and guidelines that may be of help to policymakers. The research is of importance to planners, implementers and recipients of the curriculum to the effect that it could enhance students’ academic performance in various academic disciplines. Application of ICT-based teaching and learning in an interactive manner stimulate students’ interests to acquire knowledge and apply the acquired knowledge in solving practical life social and economic problems.
1.6 Scope of Study
The study is aimed at the impact of e-learning on the higher education in Nigeria; students of Business management in Lagos State University.
1.7 Limitation of the study
Finance, inadequate materials and time constraint were the challenges the researchers encountered during the course of the study.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Involves use and application of information and communication technologies (ICT) to aid learning
Academic performance-Students efforts as measured by school grades
Is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources
Information and Communication Technology (ICT):
Is the infrastructure and components that enable modern computing.
1.9 Organizations of the Study
The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.
The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This chapter comprises the summary of research findings as well as conclusions. The chapter further presents recommendations to the stakeholders in the Ministry of Education as based on the views of the respondents (students) on the research findings, educational implication of study and suggestions for further study.
This research work attempts to answer questions on the roles of ICT on academic performance of students, the limitations and the challenges of its integration in education systems. Information communication technologies are influencing all aspects of life including education. They are promoting changes in working conditions, handling and exchanging of information, teaching-learning approaches and so on. One area in which the impacts of ICT is significant, is education. ICT is making major differences in the teaching approaches and the ways students are learning. ICT-enhanced learning environment facilitates active, collaborative, creative, integrative, and evaluative learning as an advantage over the traditional method. In other words, ICT is becoming more appropriate in the realization and implementation of the emerging pedagogy of constructivism that gives greater responsibility of learning for students. Several surveys are showing that ICT use in education systems of developed nations has comparatively advanced than ICT use in education systems of developing nations.
In addition, the major promises of ICTs use in education systems of developing countries focus on training teachers and students in new skills and introducing innovative pedagogies into the classrooms, investing on ICT infrastructure for schools and creating networks among educational institutes, improving overall standard of education by reducing the gap in quality of education between schools in urban and rural areas, initiation of smart school with objectives to foster self-paced, self-assessed, and self-directed learning through the applications of ICTs, and developing ICT policy for education and training. On the other hand, this article discusses the major limitations of ICT use in education as teacher related, student related, and technology related.
The role of ICTs in the education is recurring and unavoidable. Rapid changes in the technologies are indicating that the role of ICT in future will grow tremendously in the education sector.
- By observing current activities and practices in the education, we can say the development of ICTs within education has strongly affected on a. What is learned? b. How it is learned? c. When & where learning takes place d. Who is learning and who is teaching.
- ICT also focuses modification of the role of teachers. In addition to classroom teaching, they will have other skills and responsibilities. Teachers will act as virtual guides for students who use electronic media.
- Ultimately, the use of ICT will enhance the learning experiences of students. Also it helps them to think independently and communicate creatively. It also helps students for building successful careers and lives, in an increasingly technological world.
- We advise that both the teachers and the students should develop personal interest in the use of ICT.
- For sustainable integration of ICT in education, funding and other infrastructural issues should also be addressed
- ICT should be made compulsory in institutions and the educators should be given proper training on the effective use of ICT.
- ICT should be promoted all over the country and be made available and affordable to the people especially the educators and educational institutions.
- A stable power supply should be made available for the effective use of ICT in Nigeria.
- Teachers in the training institutions should be imbued with the skills and abilities of ICT literacy and sensibilities so that the knowledge and attitude acquired will cascade onto the learners that they come in contact with in the classrooms when they begin to practice.
- There is need to create an enabling environment for teacher education programs to strive toward producing highly qualified ICT literate teachers and teacher educators that would assist in making the integration and usage of ICT in schools a success.
- Nigeria also the need to develop a specific policy for ICT in education- a national policy for ICT in education will help to locate Nigeria in the emerging global knowledge based economy, coupled with strategic investment in education to enable greater productivity in the workforce and thus increased national competitiveness.
5.5 Areas for Further Study
The researchers opine that for further study, other scholars should:
- Examine the challenges posed by lack of adequate availability of ICT facilities in tertiary institutions in Lagos.
- Seek to address the perceived impact of government and private sectors on e-learning in higher Education in Nigeria.
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Frequently Asked Questions
How does e-learning affect students academic performance?
E-learning approach has become an increasingly popular learning approach in higher educational institutions due to vast growth of internet technology. Nowadays E-learning has a competitive advantage and many tertiary institutions have implemented it and this has impacts on students’ academic performance or GPA.
Which dimension constituted the disadvantages of e-learning?
The dimension that constituted the disadvantages of e-learning: This indicates that the student’s acceptance drawbacks of e-learning are (Agreement) of the mean (3.78) and the teaching staff’s opinion was (Undecided) of the mean (3.35).
Is e-learning better than face to face learning?
It has been found that students in higher educational institutions that engaged in E-Learning, generally performed better than those in face-to-face courses. (Holley, 2002) found that students who participate in online/ E-Learning achieve better grades than students who studied traditional approach.
Is electronic learning the future of tertiary education in Nigeria?
For this, science and technology education is the primary target in which case tertiary education will come to the front. Electronic learning which is often regarded as the fundamental tool for education is then the basic primary element which needs a very serious support during the teaching-learning process in Nigerian tertiary institutions.