Evaluation Of Current Techniques In Diagnoses Of Human Immune Deficiency Virus HIV

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Evaluation Of Current Techniques In Diagnoses Of Human Immune Deficiency Virus HIV


Abstract


A study was carried to ascertain the potency of some techniques used in diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Two hundred and five samples (203) were collected from the patients from the university of Nigerian teaching hospital and was analysed using Elisa kit, which has the ability to detect antibodies and antigens in the patients serum, the Western blots were used as the confirmatory test, to the Elisa test, In case where there is false positive of Elisa test, it is specific and sensitive, Radioimmunoasay looks for the antigens which are radioactively label. The patients result shows that 154 patients out of the 205 diagnosed were negative and only 51 patients were positive. The Elisa kit were best used because of its sensitivity and specificity. It is very cheap and can be easily seen in the market, unlike the Radiommunoassay which are rare and very expensive to be used.
Appendices


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

The Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a condition that slowly destroys the body Immune system and makes the body vulnerable to infections. The virus is typically called Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because it destroys the Immune system of the individual which is responsible for protecting the individual from disease. The immunodeficiency associated with, HIV infection can be enormous, and it is the major cause of death, due to the disfucntion of immune system.

The problem with AIDS is , sits neurological dementia complex. HIV is a lentivirus, a subgroup of retrovirus. The family of virus is known for lafency, persistent viremia, infection of the nervous system and weak hot immune system. Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is small ultra-microscopic organism that infect living things and uses them to make copies of itself when one’s Immune system is damaged by HIV, AIDS take place (Gallants, 1999).

HIV was first recognized in 1981 in Homosexual men in New York city. In the united states the HIV is now known to have originated from chimpanzees, transmission from chimps to human. Initially, there was wild speculation about what might be the cause of AIDs, but in 1982, the centre for disease control had convincing epidermological evidence that AIDS was caused by a new infectious agents.

Dulbecco et-al (1983, located small quantities of the new virus named Lymphademopalty virus (LAN) but enough to be used an antigenina blood test which showed that AIDS patients were infected with the virus. WHO, (19097), responded that the number of patients living with AIDS has escaculated, a figure of 9000 was confirmed by may 1997. In African AIDs was first responded in 1982. In Nigerian it was first responded in 1986, among commercial sex workers in Lagos and calabar. In 2003 the seroprevalence has been on the increase, despite the comprehensive and successful prevention effort in many part of the would, 4. 1 million new HIV infection was expected to have occurs In 2003 alone, which could have been contributed by an estimated 9,020 to 10,000 infection per day.

Currently, the health problem in Nigerian considering reports from various hospitals particularly, the tertiary hospitals, place AIDS infections in Nigerian at a very serious state. the potential and propensity for widespread is enormous and the debilitating and negative effect n the economy, the population category affected the working class and the dependents which constitute the penultimate individuals to the working class. HIV infections in this direction and orientation should be healed as a national emergency in Nigeria.

Meanwhile, Dr. Robert Gallo’s laboratory begin recovering a virus from AIDS patient, and reported the finding in the science journal. A number of these vinal isolated was introduced together into continuous cell cultures to see if a strain of the virus could replicate in the cells one did replicates and Gallo’s named the virus HILV. III because of the resemblance to two human T-lymphotropic viruses. (Neser, 2001).

By 2004, it was shown that many esymtomatic people was infected with virus and could transmits it and that the epidemic was far more extensive than previously suspected. Blood test was generally available for routine testing to donate blood. Thus markedly improving the safety of blood transfusion and products prepared from pooled blood (peiperls, 1995)


1.1 Hypothesis

H.O: There is significant difference in the result of Westernblots (WB), Enzymes Linked Immuno (Elisa) and Radiommuneoassay kit among HIV carriers.

HI: There is no significant difference in the result of Enzymes linked – immurosorbentassay (Elise), Western blots (WB), and Radommunoasay kit (RIA) among HIV carriers.


1.2 Aims And Objectives

  1. To evalulate the current techniques used in the diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
  2. To help recommend the best and most reliable one essaying HIV

1.3 Statement of Problems

The major problem with HIV/AIDs in developing would has been the failure to set realistic priorities with respect to both research and control.

As clinical diagnosis fail to effectively by emphasis on the virus attack is they are increasing case on HIV infection. Some specific techniques are use for the diagnosis of the HIV infection.


1.4 Limitation of the study

This work is carried out in university of Nigeria Teaching hospital Enugu (UNTH). There is lack of finance in the completion of the project work, lack of the project work, lack of the availability of time also reduce the period of time used.


Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion and Conclusion

Patients blood samples were collected in the university of Nigeria teaching hospital Enugu and was diagnosed with Elisa, Western blot and radioimmunoassay. The blood serum were used for the diagnosis, it was found out that patients both male and female of different age range were negative and 51 patients comprise of male and female of different age range were positive, after the4 confirmatory test, of all Elisa positive test.

The third table shows the numbers of positive result with their percentage both sexes. The percentage of male patients were low to compare to the one of the female patients, the male were 39.2% whereas female patient were 60.8%. the fourth table shows the number of negative result of patients with their percentage. The percentage of the female with negative result were higher than the male patients, the female were 55.8% while the male are 44.2. There is no much different in the negative result to compare to the positive result of the bsoth sexes.

Finally, the fifty table shows the rate of infection among the study group, the sample examine, number of patients with positive result and number of patient with negative result 51 and 54 respectively. The piechart represent the illustration fo the rate of infection among the study group, with positive 51 and negative 154 with the sum total of 205 of the patients, patient with positive results are 89.60c and those with negative results are 270.40c


5.1 Conclusion

The ultimate consequence of HIV infection is death. At the very emergence of this infection which lead to the birth of AIDS – acquired immune deficiency syndrome, death tolls were unchecked and staked were uncontrolled table. The unremitting effort and research by these scientist. Dulbecco et al have resulted in the capacity to put the ultimate consequence at bay for sometime and thereby increasing longevity.

The pathogenesis of how HIV infection begins are in similar to every other known infection common in our societies. But the difference is that of prolong circumstance which defy known cases of effective therapy. Although reasonable strides have been achieved in the regulation of HIV infections these strides have been, so achieved due to the understanding of the nature of HIV, which has shown high rate of mutation of the qenes, which has resulted in the strains of HIV.

There is no known cure for this infection leaves it, it’s epidemiology to be known both consciously and unconeously. In Aiss case, the pre-condition still remain as the blood, semen, or vaginal fluid of an infected person coming in direct contact with that of an uninfected person. So it is best to avoid blood contact on any blood stained object, practise safe sex, Any HIV carriers should be remind that he or she are not reliable to donate blood.

Following the potential sequence of the practice and observation carried out on patients (UNTH) shows how the sensitivity of Elisa kit worked, it’s fastness to analyze a large sample fast and the western blot was used as confirmatory test to Elisa. Two hundred and five patients were diagnosed, and one hundred and fifty-four were Negative and only fifty-one of the remaining are positive.

The evaluation of current techniques used in the diagnosis, show how the Elisa complete it’s analysis for 12-13 minutes, western blot as confirmatory test and the most accurate takes 2-5 minutes to complete it’s analysis. Radio-immunoassay take a long time to complete it’s analysis, because a lot of step are involved, it can be incubated for 2-3 days or for 72 hours to complete. It’s testing stage.

The three techniques are more reliable for the diagnosis of HIV virus, then any other techniques used


5.2 Recommendation

The Elisa kit can be recommend for the diagnosis of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of it’s specific and sensitivity to both antigen and antibody. It analyze very fast, Elisa has a good ability to detect antibodies. It is a basic quality of any medical laboratory test. Its limitation is that it can give false positive result, which can be confirmed with the use of western blot. To avoid such occurrence, most clinic and blood bank run a second test on serum that is positive, using another Eluisa kits.

The western blot also look for antibodies to HIV, it is not as sensitive as the Elisa test but it is able to detect more close at whet kind of antibodies present. When a Western blot is positive, it is specific because, it detect antibodies to a specific disease.

To avoid one contacting HIV, it is better to stay clear from the use of sharp object stained with blood, avoid sex with multiple partners and try to zip up to avoid other sexually transmitted disease associated with HIV.


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