An Evaluation Of Computer Utilization In Record Management In Nigerian University System

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An Evaluation Of Computer Utilization In Record Management In Nigerian University System


Abstract


This study was carried out to evaluate computer utilization in record management in Nigerian university system using University of Ado-Ekiti, in Ekiti State as case study. The study was carried out to ascertain whether there is any significant difference between computer utilization and manual method in record management, find out if there is any relationship between automated record and accurate record in record management, ascertain whether there is any significant relationship between computer utilization and computer personnel in record management, and ascertain whether there is any significant relationship between computer utilization and financial resources in record management. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of record keeping staff(s) across all faculties in the University of Ado-Ekiti. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 53 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using T-test and Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant difference between computer utilization and manual method in record management. The study also revealed there is a significant relationship between automated record and accurate record in record management. Therefore, it is recommended that All departments and faculties in universities in Nigeria should be computerized, connected to the internet, have electronic database and websites and share hardware and software resources. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Staff and students in some universities in Nigeria are sometimes discouraged, disturbed and disappointed as a result of delay in getting needed information, inconsistency, redundancy and inaccuracy of data, lack of sufficient storage facility to cater for proper record of both staff and students, inability of the various universities to cope with huge amount of data that are being produced annually.

Some of the reasons for the aforementioned problems could be the method that is used to collect, collate, process and maintain the data other factors could be the protocol in getting the required information, economic, political, human and among others. However, to address the above problems, the exam and record units of all universities in Nigeria should be computerized.

Ebijuwa, (2004) defines computer as the tools used for collection, processing, storage transmission and dissemination of information.

Computer is an indispensable medium by which science expresses, formulates and communicates itself. For any university community to develop socially, politically, economically, have easy access to information as and when due, overcome inaccuracy, inconsistency and redundancy of data, insufficient storage infrastructure, to cater for adequate record of both staff and students, cope with large amount of data being produced yearly, the exam and record units should be automated.

Computerized record keeping is oriented toward the use of computer systems and sophisticated programmable machines for the handling of information associated with a process and for the actual control and activation of mechanisms that facilitate or completely accomplish that process with minimal human guidance.
Rowley (1986) gives four reasons for computerization such as:

  • Increased workload – computerization can be helpful with a constant decreasing staff.
  • Need for greater efficiency- computerization may be seen as a means of saving time and money.
  • Need services –computer may offer the opportunity to offer new services in addition to existing services at little extra cost.

Co-operation and Centralization

The application of computer in record keeping in Nigerian university will make it possible for personnel and students to access the vast record over the internet, cable television and some other type of remote electronic connection. It will make it possible to store and retrieve large amount of records of both staff and students of the university.

The application of computer in the collection, collation, processing, storage, retrieval, use, transmission, dissemination and maintenance of records occupies a pride of place in every facet of life and work experience in Nigerian universities because it is being used to compute the grade point average of students, for on-line registration, examination, and admission processing, keep accurate record of both staff and students, accounting (financial management, purchasing and inventory) physical plant (room assignment, hostel accommodation, allocation of courses to lecturers, planning and maintenance), process the academic transcripts of students, results, certificates, and NYSC call up letters.

In addition, the application of computer in record keeping in Nigerian universities will prevent unauthorized personnel to have access to records of both staff and student, enable data to be updated quickly and simply without redesigning and rewriting systems and programs, overcome redundancy, repetitiveness and inconsistency of data; lead to grater efficiency and effectiveness of records keeping, provision of extra services, provide lecturers, students, administrators staff of the university, and the general public with information effectively and efficiency and manage record effectively. These applications of computer were made possible because of its high speed of operation, accuracy, diligence, versatility, high storage capacity, program compatibility and consistence in its mode of operation.

The focus of this work however, is on an evaluation of computer utilization in Record keeping at the university of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State. This is determined by the shortcomings of the manual (traditional) method of record keeping. However, as a result of the “Information Technology Age”, the computer has improved the act of record keeping in Nigeria University System because it is being used to compute the grade point average of students, for on-line registration, and admission processing, keep records of both staff and students, process the academic transcripts of students among others. The computer, an invaluable invention of our time, can be used for many applications in all fields of human endeavour. For example, in education sector, the computer is used to appraise and grade the scores of students in examination, for administrative purpose, on-line registration, e-examination, distance learning and keeping of records of personnel and scholars. In addition, the computer is also used in the following sectors : engineering, agriculture, medical, law, banking, transportation, security, police, armed forces, communication among others to carry out various tasks.

A well kept school record is a weapon to build the history of the students and staff. The world is becoming more and more complex such that we cannot but keep accurate records in our University system in Nigeria in the interest of the state, the lecturers as well as of the students.

The university as a socio-technical organization comprises of a technical task, human and the structural subsystem, each having supra system which constitutes that environment. The survival of the university system depends on its capacity to maintain constancy in its process and relationships within and outside the system, and in order to maintain a state of equilibrium in the system, there must be adequate feedback which the university collects information about the quality of her output to the environment.

University education in Nigeria is the education given after post-primary school. Its duration is between four years and seven years. The main functions of university education are teaching, research and community service.
The need to overcome the age-long problems that are peculiar to the collection of academic transcripts, NYSC call up letters, certificate, results, and other vital data as and when due has been of interest to staff and students of the University of Ado- Ekiti State, in Ekiti State. There is a peculiar references to the measure being used to determine the factor which account for the shortcomings of the manual method of record keeping at this university. Some of the factors identified are: loss of information as a result of transporting the files from one location to another; the mode of storage of data, misfiling of forms, time wasted in searching of records because of large files, poor security measure, rise in enrolment of students admission and shortage of manpower. Other factors which might contribute to the shortcomings of the manual method of record keeping, but they are more often than not ignored. Some of these are attitudinal, administrative and organizational, inadequate facilities of computer and its accessories at the University of Ado-Ekiti.

University of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State on which this study was centred, has been known to have problems with regards to manual record keeping of both staff and students. For example, Mr. Razaq Ojikutu (an alumni of the University) while expressing his opinion over problems associated with the manual record keeping was unhappy because his attempts to get his academic transcripts on several occasions proved abortive. There is need for all UNADITES (past and present) to re-visit the perennials lapses of the traditional record keeping. The research work will review the manual method of record keeping with a view to finding solutions to the problems; the prospects of the computerized methods among which are:

It will contribute to improved performance, overcome redundancy, inconsistency and repetitiveness of data, strengthened educational leadership and achievement, to overcome the loosely coupled conditions of the university by providing vital and sufficient information to authorities in the University, in ill –structured and complex decision phenomena.

It will enable students and academic staff to have unlimited access to educational resources which will make them to carry out an in-depth comparative studies and research in all fields of knowledge. The computerized method will lead to the emergence of new approaches, techniques and new styles of processing and disseminating records of both staff and students of the university.

Inspite of the relevant role of computer utilization in record keeping at the University of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State, constraints such as inaccessibility of the user to computer, inadequate knowledge and skills-based for computer planning, erratic power supply, low level of computer literacy on the part of the staff and students of the university concerned, attitudinal, administrative and organizational problems, and prohibitive cost of computer and its accessories, dearth of qualified personnel and technicians will continue to inhibit the usefulness of the computer for meaningful record keeping at the University Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problem that characterized the manual method of record keeping have become a source of concern to both staff and students of the University of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State. For instance, students who go for their academic transcripts, their results, NYSC call up letters and certificates could not get all these as and when due. If all these shortcomings are not identified and addressed, the University might have failed in the discharge of her responsibilities and services to her citizenry. This study, therefore, focuses on the problems that be-deviled the traditional method of record keeping at the University of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State with a view to ascertain the causes and proper solutions. In addition, this study will also identify the merits and demerits of computer utilization in records keeping.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study has a general objective to evaluate computer utilization in record management in Nigerian university system using University of Ado-Ekiti, in Ekiti State as case study. However, the specific objectives are as follows:

  1. To ascertain whether there is any significant difference between computer utilization and manual method in record management.
  2. To find out if there is any relationship between automated record and accurate record in record management.
  3. To ascertain whether there is any significant relationship between computer utilization and computer personnel in record management.
  4. To ascertain whether there is any significant relationship between computer? utilization and financial resources in record management.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Were there any significant difference between computer utilization and manual method in record management?
  2. Is there any relationship between automated record and accurate record in record management?
  3. Are there any significant relationship between computer utilization and computer personnel in record management?
  4. Are there any significant relationship between computer? utilization and financial resources in record management?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Ho1: There is no significant difference between computer utilization and manual method in record management.

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between automated record and accurate record in record management.

Ho3: There is no significant relationship between computer utilization and computer personnel in record management.

Ho4: There is no significant relationship between computer utilization and financial resources in record management.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will bring into lime light the problems that be –deviled the manual method of record keeping. The findings from this study will enable both staff and students of this University to appreciate the potentials of the computer in record keeping and equally expose the students and staff of this University to the role of computer in various aspects of life. It will also necessitate government active involvement in logical locative mechanism for all sub-sectors the education industry; improve the quality and efficiency of record keeping in terms of academics transcripts, registration courses, NYSC call up letters, results and certificates.

Worthy of mentioning in this study is the fact that some general problems bedeviling the university set up will be examined and vital and general recommendations will be suggested. These will provide useful guidelines to policy makers, planners, administrators and school technocrats by providing the ways of improving the university system in their future attempts. It will afford the students and staff of the university much easier access to information than the manual method as there may be no further need for guides or intermediaries. It affords the optimal use of available personnel, and thereby same time and money. It will make information to be rendered readily within and beyond the limits of the university through effective communication and on-line system. It will enable data to be updated quickly and simply without redesigning and rewriting system and programs.

It will contribute to improved performance, overcome redundancy, repetitiveness and inconsistency of data, and strengthened educational leadership and attainment. There will be improvements in the searching and retrievals of records of both staff and students. It will help in the development and presentation of standardized records of both staff and students of the university. For example, annually statistical reports summarizing total numbers of students admitted, total number of students and staff in the university total number of graduating students and non-graduating students in each department and faculty, annual results of budget, revenue and examination.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study aims at identifying the extent of the effect of the manual method of record keeping at the University of Ado-Ekiti, in Ekiti State. The study will be designed to study


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Computer:

A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or data. It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data.

Information Technology:

Refers to the use of information system apparatus to process and disseminate information or data. It plays a major role in the performance of cooperate organization in Nigeria.

Management

Management is the organization and coordination of the activities of a business in order to achieve defined objectives.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on computer utilization in record management in Nigerian university system using University of Ado-Ekiti, in Ekiti State as case study.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine computer utilization in record management in Nigerian university system using University of Ado-Ekiti, in Ekiti State as case study.

The study specifically was aimed at ascertaining whether there is any significant difference between computer utilization and manual method in record management, find out if there is any relationship between automated record and accurate record in record management, ascertain whether there is any significant relationship between computer utilization and computer personnel in record management, and ascertain whether there is any significant relationship between computer utilization and financial resources in record management.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are record keeping staff(s) across all faculties in University of Ado-Ekiti.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a significant difference between computer utilization and manual method in record management.
  2. There is a significant relationship between automated record and accurate record in record management.
  3. There is a significant relationship between computer utilization and computer personnel in record management.
  4. There is a significant relationship between computer? utilization and financial resources in record management.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

Nigerian university systems should develop her own information technology.

  1. Establishment of departments in universities where computing and information technology courses can be taught to staff and students of the universities with cognate skills.
  2. There is need for the computerization and equipping of all developments and faculties in Nigerian universities.
  3. The environment for the development and management of the computer and its related materials should be made available in all universities in Nigeria.
  4. The problem of erratic power supply should be addressed by the Federal and state governments
  5. Development of all information and communication infrastructure in all universities in Nigerian.
  6. All departments and faculties in universities in Nigeria should be computerized, connected to the internet, have electronic database and websites and share hardware and software resources.

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