An Evaluation Of Computer In Banking Sector (A Case Study Of Access Bank Plc Kaduna)
The prime aim of this study has been to assess the performance of banks with the introduction of computers and to evaluate the role computer plays in banking sector. The study also went on to assess the contribution of computers to economic growth. The entire work is made up of a population size of twentynine (29), which are staff Access Bank Plc., Kaduna Branch. For the purpose of this study data were obtained from the primary and secondary sources of data. But in general, most of the data obtained were from the primary source, that is through the administration of questionnaires. The data collected were duly analyzed by the use of percentage, tabulation and descriptive analysis. From the researcher’s findings, the use of computers in banks is very essential to enhance better services by banks, with a view to satisfying the customers
Table of Contents
- Title Page
- Approval Page
- Table of Contents
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of General Problems
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Research Question
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Historical Background of United Bank for Africa
- 2.0 Introduction
- 2.1 Meaning of Computer
- 2.3 Parts of Computers
- 2.4 Computer Hardware
- 2.5 Computer Software
- 2.6 Computer Network
- 2.7 Computer Security
- 2.8 The Need for Computers in Banks
- 2.9 Effects of Computerization in Access Bank Plc
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sampling Techniques
- 3.4 Source and Method of Data Collection
- 3.5 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.6 Justification for the Instrument Used
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Data Presentation
- 4.3 Data Analysis and Interpretation
- 4.4 Testing of Hypothesis
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
The role in which the computer plays in our everyday lives cannot be overemphasized. In fact, the computer is one of the greatest things that has happened to mankind and it should not be seen as a mere invention but a “revolution”.
One may be wondering how the world would be without computers and how we would actually cope without it. Before the advent of computers in early 1980’s, most of man’s jobs were performed manually and mentally, which were tedious and tiring and of course, these approaches did not provide desired results because the rate of productivity was very low. But now, we have an inevitable, nonliving assistant to mankind known as the computer which simplifies the manual and mental procedures, enhances efficient mass handling of data and information and facilitates greater periodicity.
As the topic suggests, “An evaluation of computer in banking sector” this project work focuses on the impact of computer in banking with Access Bank Plc at Au Akilu Road, Kaduna being the case study.
Bankers have enjoyed the benefits of computerized banking over the years and they would testify that computer has done much good to banking sector. In Access Bank Plc banking services have been improved and even the customers can feel the efficacy of computer in the wide range of services provided by the bank.
It should be borne in mind that the computer does not only enhance banking services, but also other areas like Accounting, Agriculture, Education, Commerce, Medicine, Engineering, Communication, Aviation and Military to mention a few.
1.1 Background of the Study
Years ago, banking services were not dependent on computer. Actually these banks performed their functions manually. With the manual procedure in those years a lot of work has to be done just by a few staff and this perform the tasks that a manmade device would have done just in the “twinkle of an eye”. Obviously, the computer has helped a bank like Access Bank Plc to employ just few staff and computers to execute various tasks that and would have been performed by many staff for days. Computer provides the banking sector with great packages that help various banks enhance the services provided to customers. We shall be looking at this later in the course of this project report.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Every individual including those in the banking sector knows that computer plays a key role in the day to day activities. But at this juncture, there is a need to state the inherent problems associated with the invention of computer.
In banking, Access Bank Plc. to be precise the researcher came to understand that most, if not all of the work carried out in the bank are performed by computers. This is good because they make our work faster, but where the problem lies is that human beings (ie the users of computer) have totally submitted to computer as if without computer, no work can carried out. Remember that these computers were made and configured by human beings so, the computers should be put in their rightful place. Note that the adverse effect of overrelying on computer leads to laziness on the part of staff of an organization.
Also, human effort is affected. Most of the computerized efforts in the past years were taken care of by humans. Today in banking for example, in the account section various transactions or documentation are performed by computer, instead of men and women. But the efforts of these people are obviously not needed. Therefore computer gives room for more and it does not allow humans to exercise their mental and intellectual abilities.
The problems associated with this study are many that one can go on and on to list and discuss them one after the other. This is the reason why the researcher has embarked on this work to point out the significant role computer plays in banking sector.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general aim or purpose of this study is to discuss the refe computer plays in banking sector. Specifically, the study is set out to:
- Investigate why banks switched to the use of computer system.
- Attempt to identify and analyze the effect of computer to Access Bank Plc.
- Expose to readers the role played by computer in the activities of banks.
- To appraise the failure (if any) or weaknesses of computer in Access Bank Plc.
- To expose industrial corporate bodies and other financial institutions to the role which computer can play in the activities of the bank
- Finally, to recommend to users certain computing procedures that will enable the achievement of effective and efficient banking
1.4 Research Hypothesis
The hypothesis of this work shall be:
HO (Null Hypothesis)
That the application of computer for banking purpose, has not enhanced the performance of banks
Hi (Alternative Hypothesis)
That the application of computer for banking purpose, has greatly enhanced the performance of banks
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study is significant because it will enable the following class of people to benefit a great deal from the findings that are contained in this research work:
- Firstly, it will enable other merchant and commercial banks that have not gone computerized to know the importance of computers and benefits they will derive through the use of the computerized systems
- It will help to determine whether computer knowledge is a must for banking operations and professional accountants alike
- It will also be of great significance to potential and existing customers of Intercontinental Bank Plc. and of other banks to know the relevance of computer
- The management and staff of Access Bank Plc, related organization and the entire public will benefit from this because, they would know what computer is, its, functions and how it has contributed immensely to banking sector. This study will also be of importance to future researchers alike who can base their research work on if for others to benefit.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research work focuses on the role that computer plays in banking sector. The study is carried out in the data room of Access Bank (Nig.) Plc Kaduna, located at Au Akilu Road, opposite Mobil filling Station. It covers some practical application of computers in its locale. A detailed study shall be made of all the departments in the place of study, as most of the fields of operations were computerized at the time of writing this project work, as well as other relevant areas where we can acquire more information. The findings of this study will primarily be based on the data collected from the case study.
1.7 Historical Background of Access Bank Plc.
Access Bank Plc. came into existence in March 1989 as a product of the partnership among some visionary and dynamic Nigerian businessmen to provide innovate and customer focused products and services that will satisfy the Public’s growing need for sophisticated banking services. Since its inception as Nigerian Intercontinental Merchant Bank Limited, the bank has been providing a wide array of products and services covering investment banking, retail funds management and credit management.
The bank is managed by a dynamic, versatile and resultoriented team and easily won national acclaim by emerging as the most profitable merchant bank just five years after its takeoff. Over the years, the bank has grown to symbolize innovation service excellence and professionalism, with a diversified group structure spanning the various areas of the financial service business. The group is today made up of vibrant commercial banks: Equity Bank of Nigeria Plc. Gateway Bank and Global Bank and a flourishing insurance company, WAPIC Insurance Plc.,
Access Capital Markets Limited (ICML) and two associate companies: Access securities Limited and Associated Discount House Limited (ADHL). The discount house bought into Gateway Bank Plc. And owns controlling interests; while Equity bank has investment in Pioneer sorting Company Limited.
In July 1999, the bank converted to a commercial bank and later obtained a universal Banking License to avail many more customers of its unique and customized products and services as well as to tap into other market opportunities in the Nigerian economy. Following a resolution of the Board in October 2001, the bank changed to a public limited liability company in June 2002 and followed it up in July same year with an initiation public offer (IPO).
The capitalization of the bank has since been further boosted with N3.58 billion being proceeds of the lPO and by mid 2004, the bank’s capitalization had hit N8 Billion before the new minimum capitalization of N25 billion was set by the regulations. Subsequently, the bank went back to the capital market and returned impressively with its new capitalization hitting over N34.7 billion. The bank’s shares are listed on the Nigerian stock Exchange (NSE). In the current financial report, the group posted
N8.1 billion profit before Tax and N6.1 billion profit After Tax. Presently all these parameters have made Access Bank the fourth largest bank in Nigeria.
Following the CBN’s decision for Banking consolidation, the bank merged out four Banks (Intercontinental, Equity Gateway and Global Banks) into single entity. A mega Bank with the name Access Bank Plc emerged on the 10th October, 2005. The mega bank now has capitalization in excess of N50 billion in shareholders fund, total asset of N354 billion. Total deposit in excess of N216 billion, foreign currency lines of $182 million and a total branch network of 174 branches as at October 2005.
Access Bank Plc offers a full range of products coverage a wide spectrum of the market. These include but not limited to Access diamond Fund (IDF), Intercontinental valuable Yield Account (IVY), Access Premium savings account (IPSA) and the Access Classic Current Account (ICLASS). The bank has also been licensed as a direct agent for Western Union money Transfer as well as a principal partner licensed by Master Card International to issue Master Card and by Inter Switch Limited to issue debit cards in Nigeria.
A socially responsible organization, Access Bank maintains a longstanding policy of corporate responsibility to the communities in which it operates. Annual investment in social responsibility in the areas of Public Health and Education has moved up to N300 million.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
The prime aim of this study has been to assess the performance of banks with the introduction of computers and the contribution of computers to the economic growth using parameters like increase in productivity and technical development.
Findings reveal that the performances of banks have been very encouraging with the introduction of these gadgets (computers). But political constraints, infrastructure inadequacies, perennial inflation (affects the importation of spare parts) and its maintenance, also the attitude of Nigerians towards computer have stood in way of buoyant performance of computers.
Computers have made significant contribution not only in banking operations but also in all aspects of human activities in this generation. From the research conducted, the discovery made was that the introduction of computers in banks has a lot of effects on their services. These effects can be classified under four (4) broad sub-headings:
- Effects on the operations
- Effect on customers
- Effects on workers and management
- The general effects.
5.2.1 Effects on Operation
In Intercontinental Bank branches where computers are being used, records show that up to date in comparison with the “up-country” where there are no computers. Reports and statement of accounts are easily presented to both the management and prospective customers.
The rate of fraud in the banks where.. computers have been introduced, is minimal compared with banks or branches where there are no computers.
5.2.2 Effects on Customers
Since the introduction of computers in the services of Intercontinental Bank Plc; its customers spend less time in the bank when compared to some other banks and these have proved its strangeness and reliability towards an increase in its customers.
5.2.3 Effects on Workers And Management
With the introduction of computers in Intercontinental Bank Plc; the workers’ working hours are now less, terms of balancing and updating of accounts. Thus, the effects in essence are that these jobs are not done by the computer within a short period of time, waste of resources and energy in the course of doing the job.
Decision making in activities of the bank with computers, has been very easy for the management. The reports from these branches to the management are timely, accurate and regular in comparison with the olden days when there were no computers. It also assists the management by providing an efficient and effective internal control and external control systems.
5.2.4 General Effects
- Through their speed, enable man to increase his output per hour;
- Enable man to make use of many mathematical methods that were previously impracticable, due to lengthy and time consuming calculations involved,
- Increase speed and accuracy
- Encourage intelligent planning
- Increase number of customers, through better and efficient services in terms of improved documentation
- Improve utilization of banks through better control, better planning, great machinery utilization, better product/services designed or simply better activity in measuring and reporting.
- Improve cash flow through better management of debtors/creditors and better predictions and reactions of changing cash circumstances.
- Reduce staffing by automating the administration chaos.
The Intercontinental Bank Plc computers will be of little advantage and a white elephant project, which is economically unwise if the bank continues to underutilized it.
The researcher therefore suggests that, the computerization of operations of other branches should be done within a short period to enhance efficiency.
The computer processing unit or rather the information technology unit should be made accessible to other staff in order to reduce fraud of any kind.
Banks should employ more of people who are computer literate and are experienced in computerized banking.
Also, the queuing system in attending to both the paying-in customer and the receiving customer should be highly differentiated. That is, the paying-in customer should be given more attention than the receiving customer, since the former stand in a greater risk than the later in terms of uncertainty.
To Prospective Investors:
Before money is invested on computers there must be a computer expert who will choose the kind of computers to be purchased. Thus, the computer system chosen must be powerful enough to do all the jobs that the users wish to do.
This is to say that there must be a feasibility study, which should take into account the expansion rate of such institution before the purchase of the computer.
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