An Evaluation Of Civilian Military Relationship In A Conflict Situation: A Case Study Of Boko Haram Insurgency In Northeastern Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

An Evaluation Of Civilian Military Relationship In A Conflict Situation: A Case Study Of Boko Haram Insurgency In Northeastern Nigeria


Abstract


The devastating attacks of the Boko haram insurgence which led to the counter response of the Nigerian military drew the military organization into communities affected by the conflict. The situation of conflict brought an apparent difference in the culture, norms, and values of the military and civilian worlds, and the lack of contact and understanding between themposes a threat to the more liberal civilian society. The problem confronting the study is an evaluation of civilian military relationship in a conflict situation. A case study of Boko Haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The Civil–military relations is the relationship which exist between the civil society and military organizations which is instituted to protect it. CMR describes how the civil authority of a given society relates with its military authority. Shields, Patricia. 2006. The general belief is that the civilian control of the military is accept able and preferred to the military controlling of the state, however in a conflict situation, the relationship between civilian authorities and military leaders must be worked out in practice. In the broader sense CMR examines the ways society and military intersect or interact. It examines how the military integrate into the society and the fairness and efficacy of these systems, the way the minorities, and women are handle and the behavior and culture exercised by military organizations among civilians as well as the gaps in policy preferences between civilians and soldiers.

The Boko Haram insurgency began in 2009, leading to armed rebellion against the Nigerian government , religious violence between Nigeria’s Muslim and Christian After years of fighting, the insurgents became aggravated resulting in 10,849 deaths, and the continued spread of the insurgents to neighboring Cameroon, Chad, and Niger, thus becoming a major regional conflict. The study is an evaluation of civilian military relationship in a conflict situation. A case study of Boko Haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The devastating attacks of the Boko haram insurgence which led to the counter response of the Nigerian military drew the military organization into communities affected by the conflict. The situation of conflict brought an apparent difference in the culture, norms, and values of the military and civilian worlds, and the lack of contact and understanding between themposes a threat to the more liberal civilian society. The problem confronting the study is an evaluation of civilian military relationship in a conflict situation. A case study of Boko Haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to proffer an evaluation of civilian military relationship in a conflict situation. A case study of Boko Haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria;

The specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To determine the nature of civilian military relationship in a conflict situation.
  2. To determine the civilian military relationship in a conflict situation of Boko Haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the nature of civilian military relationship in a conflict situation?
  2. What are the civilian military relationship in a conflict situation of Boko Haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study is an evaluation of civilian military relationship in a conflict situation. A case study of Boko Haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria. The study shall therefore serve as a veritable source of information to stakeholders to proffer interventions which will address the problem.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the evaluation of civilian military relationship in a conflict situation. A case study of Boko Haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

The study was confronted with logistics and geographical constraints.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Civilian Military Relationship Defined

Civil–military relations is the relationship which exist between the civil society and military organizations which is instituted to protect it. CMR describes how the civil authority of a given society relates with its military authority. The general belief is that the civilian control of the military is accept able and preferred to the military controlling of the state, However in a conflict situation, the relationship between civilian authorities and military leaders must be worked out in practice.

Democracy Defined

Democracy is a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting in elected government who in turn return democratic dividends to the people.

Privatisation Defined

The transfer of ownership of government property, assets, companies, interests, going corporate concerns, shares, securities and from the public sector to the private sector of the economy

Development Defined

The state of which there is an increase in the standard of living of the people. A condition of economic growth of the nation. A state of fundamental change and Sustainable development.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Preamble

This chapter presents the summary and conclusion that can be drawn from the study. It also presents the researchers recommendations with regards to the findings of the study and proposed areas for further studies by other researcher.


5.2 Summary

The main objective of the study is to proffer an evaluation of civilian military relationship in a conflict situation. A case study of Boko Haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria;

The specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To determine the nature of civilian military relationship in a conflict situation.
  2. To determine the civilian military relationship in a conflict situation of Boko Haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria.

Findings from the study reveal that there is the inherent contradiction in the relationship between the civilian-military interests in democracies.

The civilian control of the military is acceptable and preferred to the military controlling of the state. CMR examines the ways society and military intersect or interact. The relationship between civilian authorities and military leaders must be worked out in practice.


5.3 Conclusion

This paper aims to investigatean evaluation of civilian military relationship in a conflict situation. A case study of boko haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria.

The study was delimited to the following scope of the study. The study is to be carried out in Nigeria with data gotten from the citizens in the Northeast Nigeria. The study only analyzed civilian military relationship in a conflict situation.

This study had several delimitations. This study will only use citizens in the Northeast Nigeria.

As a result of the inability of the researcher to effectively study the whole population strength, a representative number was chosen as the sample size population, 120 respondents was used as the sample size. Data was collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data was obtained through questionnaire and personal interviews with the respondents. Tables and simple percentage was used as technique of analyzing the research questions.


5.4 Recommendations

The military and civilians having realized that they need each other more than they both imagine, it is necessary to take some pro-active steps towards further enhancing the relations between them. The military is one institution that has the largest core of experts in strategic studies. There is the need to draw a strategy of engagement with civilians on a regular basis so as to bridge gaps and pull down whatever walls of suspicion exists. One way of handling this is to enhance the culture of monitoring and responding to public opinion. This way the military would identify areas that it may need to make adjustments itself or identify areas for education or informing the public about the military without giving away sensitive information. The initiative of running media organisations starting with the Armed Forces Radio and Radio Dole need to be sustained and broadened. Through the media the military could gather important information – suggestions and ideas – that could help the military in protecting the territorial integrity and any internal threats that could be beyond the fire power of the police. There should a mechanism for the review of the programmers of the stations with a view to strengthening them as credible sources of information to the public. It needs to be factored into the activities of the military to hold town hall meetings as it provides opportunities for direct interaction with members of the public. The meeting needs to be thought through and specific themes discussed. It is another way of deepening the relationship with the civilian population. Such meeting because of the time and cost involved can be organized and rotated on zonal basis. There is the need to have some form of forum with opinion leaders – traditional rulers including ward heads, religious leaders, political leaders, journalists, NGOs, etc – to discuss some issues that could help strengthen relationship, but also give room for the assessment of the character of persons who want to join the military so that bad elements cannot get into the institution.


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