Evaluation Of Bearing Capacity Of Soil Layers (A Case Study Of Owerri Federal Constituency)

Project and Seminar Materials for Civil Engineering CE

Evaluation Of Bearing Capacity Of Soil Layers (A Case Study Of Owerri Federal Constituency)


Abstract


This project dealt with the evaluation of bearing capacity of soil layers using standard penetration test as a guide, a case study of Owerri federal constituency which comprises Owerri North, Owerri West and Owerri Municipal, Imo State.

It is carried out to ascertain the bearing capacities of soil existing in above three locations namely; Owerri North, Owerri West and Owerri Municipal all in Owerri Federal Constituency of Imo State.

Standard penetration test was used among other methods due to its simplicity. Soil samples of one meter and two meter depths were collected from three locations under study. The soil samples were tested for the bulk density, dry unit weight, natural moisture content and finally with the use of Terzaghi’s general equation qf = CNC+rD+Nq½rBNr, the bearing capacities of the soil samples were calculated and analyzed.

From the results of the experiments, it was observed that Naze and Uratta representing Owerri North have the maximum bearing capacities of 1046KN/M2 and 1417KN/M2 which attributed to their high resistance to structural load.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Table
  • List of Figures

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 General
  • 1.2 Aims and Objective of Study
  • 1.3 Scope of the Study
  • 1.4 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 General
  • 2.2 Methods for Evaluating Bearing Capacity
  • 2.2.1 Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
  • 2.2.2 Significance of Standard Penetration Test
  • 2.2.3 Standard Penetration Test corrections
  • 2.2.4 Purpose of Standard Penetration
  • 2.2.5 Sampling and Testing
  • 2.2.6 Apparatus used for SPT
  • 2.3 Shear Strength of Soil
  • 2.4 Effective Stress Analysis
  • 2.5 Total Stress
  • 2.6 Derivation of Bearing Capacity

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Data Collection
  • 3.2 Standard Penetration Test
  • 3.2.1 Sampling Procedure
  • 3.2.2 Precaution taken for Accuracy
  • 3.3 Shear Box Test
  • 3.3.1 Procedure for the test
  • 3.3.2 Precautions
  • 3.4 Natural Moisture Content of Soil
  • 3.4.1 Procedure for the test
  • 3.4.2 Precautions

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation of Data and Analysis

  • 4.1 Shear Box test Computation
  • 4.2 Natural Moisture Content
  • 4.3 Calculation for Bulk Density of Soil
  • 4.4 Calculation for dry Unit Weight of Soil
  • 4.5 Calculation for Bearing Capacity of Soil
  • 4.6 Data Analysis

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

List Of Tables


  • Table 4.1A: Nekede 2m depth Raw Reading
  • Table 4.1B: Nekede 2m Normal Stress computation
  • Table 4.1C: Nekede 2m Shear Stress computation
  • Table 4.2A: Nekede 1m depth raw reading
  • Table 4.2B: Nekede 1m normal stress computation
  • Table 4.2C: Nekede 1m shear stress computation
  • Table 4.3A: Naze 2m depth Raw Reading
  • Table 4.3B: Naze 2m Normal Stress computation
  • Table 4.3C: Naze 2m Shear Stress computation
  • Table 4.4A: Naze 1m depth raw reading
  • Table 4.4B: Naze 1m normal stress computation
  • Table 4.4C: Naze 1m shear stress computation
  • Table 4.5A: World Bank 2m depth Raw Reading
  • Table 4.5B: World Bank 2m Normal Stress computation
  • Table 4.5C: World Bank 2m Shear Stress computation
  • Table 4.6A: World Bank 1m depth raw reading
  • Table 4.6B: World Bank 1m normal stress computation
  • Table 4.6C: World Bank 1m shear stress computation
  • Table 4.7A: Uratta 2m depth Raw Reading
  • Table 4.7B: Uratta 2m Normal Stress computation
  • Table 4.7C: Uratta 2m Shear Stress computation
  • Table 4.8A: Uratta 1m depth raw reading
  • Table 4.8B: Uratta 1m normal stress computation
  • Table 4.8C: Uratta 1m shear stress computation
  • Table 4.9A: Ihiagwa 2m depth Raw Reading
  • Table 4.9B: Ihiagwa 2m Normal Stress computation
  • Table 4.9C: Ihiagwa 2m Shear Stress computation
  • Table 4.10A: Ihiagwa 1m depth raw reading
  • Table 4.10B: Ihiagwa 1m normal stress computation
  • Table 4.10C: Ihiagwa 1m shear stress computation
  • Table 4.11A: Ikenegbu 2m depth Raw Reading
  • Table 4.11B: Ikenegbu 2m Normal Stress computation
  • Table 4.11C: Ikenegbu 2m Shear Stress computation
  • Table 4.12A: Ikenegbu 1m depth raw reading
  • Table 4.12B: Ikenegbu 1m normal stress computation
  • Table 4.12C: Ikenegbu 1m shear stress computation
  • Table 4.21: Ikenegbu 2m Natural Moisture Content
  • Table 4.22: Ikenegbu 1m Natural Moisture Content
  • Table 4.23: Ihiagwa 2m Natural Moisture Content
  • Table 4.24: Ihiagwa 1m Natural Moisture Content
  • Table 4.25: Naze 2m Natural Moisture Content
  • Table 4.26: Naze 1m Natural Moisture Content
  • Table 4.27: Nekede 2m Natural Moisture Content
  • Table 4.28: Nekede 1m Natural Moisture Content
  • Table 4.29: Uratta 2m Natural Moisture Content
  • Table 4.210: Uratta 1m Natural Moisture Content
  • Table 4.211: World Bank 2m Natural Moisture Content
  • Table 4.212: World Bank 1m Natural Moisture Content

List Of Figures


  • Figure 4.1: Nekede 2m depth
  • Figure 4.2: Nekede 1m depth
  • Figure 4.3: Naze 2m depth
  • Figure 4.4: Naze 1m depth
  • Figure 4.5: World Bank 2m depth
  • Figure 4.6: World Bank 1m depth
  • Figure 4.7: Uratta 2m depth
  • Figure 4.8: Uratta 1m depth
  • Figure 4.9: Ihiagwa 2m depth
  • Figure 4.10: Ihiagwa 1m depth
  • Figure 4.11: Ikenegbu 2m depth
  • Figure 4.12: Ikenegbu 1m depth

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 General

The term Bearing Capacity is the largest intensity of pressure which may be applied to a structure to the soil without causing failure of soil in shear or excessive settlement.

All the Engineering structures such as Dams, Buildings, Bridges, Culvert, etc are founded on the soil and their loads are transferred to the underlying sub-strata through foundations. To ensure safe transfer of the load to the underground soil in such a manner that no shear failure or excessive settlement occurs, there is need to ascertain the bearing capacity or the resistance of the sub-strata.

Because of the structural collapse which is becoming rampant, this project research is channelled towards the evaluation of bearing capacity of the different soil layers to ascertain their resistance to structural load.

There are other methods of evaluating the bearing capacity of soils such as:

  1. Plate Load Test
  2. Cone Penetration Test

But the method employed in this project is Standard Penetration Test due to its simplicity.
There are many types of Bearing Capacity which include:

Allowable Bearing Capacity which deals with the maximum pressure applied to the soil such that the induced stress in the soil is lesser than its capacity and the settlement in the soil is within the tolerance limit of the super structure.


1.2 Aims And Objectives Of The Study

The purpose of this project is to determine the bearing capacity of soil layers existing in different locations within the Owerri Federal Constituency.

As the bearing capacity of soil layers vary from place to place and with depth, this project work will assist Engineers in recommending the type of structure to be erected on any part of the soil within the Owerri Federal Constituency.
Another objective of this study is in comparison with its case study at three locations thus: Nekede, Naze and Owerri municipal all in Owerri Federal Constituency.

This project work will also help to bring to the knowledge of the stake holders the soil strata and the depth to which foundations have to be safely established for effective transfer of structural load to the soil.


1.3 Scope Of The Study

While carrying out this project on the bearing capacity of soil layers, soil samples were collected from these locations; Nekede, Naze and Owerri municipal all in Owerri Federal Constituency of Imo State for analysis. The scope of this project work involves going to the three locations for the collections of soil samples, laboratory test, experimentation and analysis of data using standard penetration test as a guide and finally the result of the analysis.


1.4 Definition Of Terms

1.4.1 Cohesion (C):

This is defined as the frictional resistance between soil grains.

1.4.2 Angle Of Internal Friction(Q):

This is defined as the angle occurring between the base and the shear plane.

1.4.3 Bulk Density (W):

This is the mass of the dry soil material including the solid particles and any contained water to its volume including voids.

1.4.4 Dry Density (D):

This is the mass of the dry soil material after drying to a constant weight at 105OC contained in a unit volume of undried material.

1.4.5 Moisture Content (W):

This is the quantity of water which can be removed from the soil by heating at 105OC expressed as a percentage of the dry weight.

1.4.6 Nr, Nc, Nq:

These are defined as the dimensionless bearing capacity factors which depend on the angle of material friction. Ф.

1.4.7 Net Ultimate Bearing Capacity (Qnm):

This is the minimum net pressure intensity causing shear failure of soil.

1.4.8 Net Foundation Pressure (Qnf):

This is the total foundation pressure less the effective weight of the soil permanently reduced.

1.4.9 Net Safe Bearing Capacity:

This is the bearing capacity divided by factor of safety.

1.4.10 Angle Of Obliquity:

This is defined as the angle formed by the resultant of frictional force and downward vertical force with the normal to the plane.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

From the results of the experiments carried out on the different soil samples, conclusions have been made as regards to the strength displayed by the soil samples obtained from the three locations which includes Owerri west, Owerri north and Owerri municipal all in Owerri Federal Constituency of Imo State.

The bulk density, natural moisture content and the bearing capacity of the different samples have been carefully determined.

Comparison Of The Strength Displayed By The Various Soil Samples.

The soil samples from Urata and Naze representing Owerri north having the bearing capacity of the 1517 KN/m2 and 1046 KN/m2, for the two meter depth, 621 KN/m2 and 846 KN/m2 for the one meter depth, natural moisture contents of 14% and 11% for the two meter depth, 15% and 9% for the one meter depth, were observed to have the highest bearing capacity are moisture content. They exhibit the highest resistance to structural load compared to any other locations within the Owerri Federal Constituency.

The soil sample from Ihiagwa and Ikenegbu representing Owerri west and Owerri municipal having the bearing capacity of 408KN/M2 and 514KN/M2 for the two meter depth, 259KN/M2 and 379KN/M2 for the one meter depth, natural moisture contents of 15% and 14% for the two meter depth and 17% and 37% for the one meter depth, thus Ihiagwa exhibited the lowest resistance to structural load as indicated by its lowest bearing capacity and Ikenegbu is much more porous as indicated by the high moisture content.


5.2 Recommendation

From the results of the experiments and the analysis, I therefore recommend mainly the Naze and Uratta representing Owerri north having the bearing capacity of 1417KN/M2 and 1046KN/M2 natural moisture contents of 14% and 115 for the two meter depth, for any building beyond two storey. The high bearing capacity and its moderate porosity show high resistance to load compared to any other locations within the Owerri federal constituency of Imo State.

Ihiagwa, representing Owerri west and Ikenegbu representing Owerri municipal having the bearing capacities of 408KN/M2 and 514KN/M2, natural moisture contents of 15% and 145 for the two meter depth, 259KN/M2 and 379KN/M2 and 17% and 37% for the one meter depth are of very low resistance to structural load. Thus they should be stabilized and probably consolidated before erecting any structure on them. This will help to improve its bearing capacity, reduce its porosity and hence increase its strength and resistance to structural load.


Evaluation Of Bearing Capacity Of Soil Layers (A Case Study Of Owerri Federal Constituency)


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Evaluation Of Bearing Capacity Of Soil Layers (A Case Study Of Owerri Federal Constituency)


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