Evaluation Of Accounting Information In A Computerized Organization

Project and Seminar material for Accountancy

Project and Seminar material for Accountancy


Abstract


The study is on computerized accounting system as an aid to effective management of an organization. For more understanding of the study, the researcher has to explain the meaning of computer and computerized accounting system.

A computer is an electronic machine capable of storing processing analyzing and general information from raw data while computerized accounting system is that which uses computer in doing most if not all of its accounting jobs. It has been observed that most people do not appreciate how the use of computer affects the performance of management function.
Owing to this a through researcher, would be carried out and the researcher has in mind that by the competition of this study, the following results will be achieved

  1. How computer aids manage to make effective decisions
  2. The extent of improving the system of accounting operation in out organization through computerization
  3. The degree of benefits enjoyed by the customers of organizations, importance of computer literacy in the life of members of staff of organizations.

During the course of the study, the researcher will consult books, journals, newspapers and articles that will help to justify that computerized accounting system is an aid to effective management.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of study
  • 1.4 Research question
  • 1.5 Limitation of the study
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Assumption of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Accounting information
  • 2.2 Information
  • 2.3 Need for accounting information
  • 2.4 Parties interested in accounting information
  • 2.5 Accounting records and financial statement
  • 2.6 Computer and classification of computer
  • 2.7 Computer and accounting
  • 2.8 Accounting software and accounting system
  • 2.9 Manual accounting system
  • 2.10 The effect of computer and accounting information

Chapter Three

Research methodology and design

  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Sources/methods of data collection
  • 3.3 population and sample size
  • 3.4 Sample technique
  • 3.5 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
  • 3.6 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

Presentation and analysis of data

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Data Analysis

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaires

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

In ancient days, it was difficult to calculate, safeguard or keep records people were using toes and fingers in counting unite

According Charles (1980) accounting is the eyes and ears of management accounting is also the language of business, each business must know what accounting is thereby determine measures to control the financial aspect of the business.

Accounting keeps the records or scores of the business. It call for the attention of the problem and opportunities that confront the enterprise. Where action is needed it suggest possible course of action.

History of accounting started when people learnt how to record their activities.

The early scribes made their marks on stone and wax tables, these way keeping records were invented to meet a need of gathering processing and preserving information. The earliest business records merely listed the belonging to some people later records began to show concern about profit and looses on venture income and expenditure were recorded

Further advances in accounting were made by government and church officials it was until 1449 when luca pacioit, a Franciscan monk and an Italian mathematic presented to the world what is known as modern ‘’double entry ‘ he published a book on mathematics called ‘’summa mathematics and on it he gave the first computer description a way of keeping good records

Accounting is a language web to communication to financial system and other information to all interested parties of an organization

The importance of accounting information in expanding our economy cannot be over emphasized since organizations perform vital role in the development of the economy. And for them to effectively carry out these functions they employ system that quicken and promotes their services one of the systems is the introduction of computer in accounting operation as an aid to effective management of organization.

Computer can be define as an electronic device that is capable of accepting data as input process that data and produce information as output and store the information at the storage unit for uses when needed computer is fast accurate and more effective than human beings through it produce only what you feed it (i.e. garbage in garbage out) computer is a kind of mechanical device which on receipt of an input is capable of processing them according to a set of previously supplied instructions and making the output available when desired or needed

Therefore computerization of accounting system in an establishment will ensure that all relevant information and explanations with respect to financial transactions are effectively processed and recorded. The decision to install this instruction in an organization must be weight with other cost, such as the initial capital outlay maintenance, staffing

Before installation of computers, an organization system must carefully choose and know its operating system the operating system is the software that gives a life in animate to the hardware in many ways it is the operating system that gives a computer its distinct characteristics

Today hundreds of organization have seen the need for computerized accounting system, any attempt to keep it away from organizations will course them and other financial institutions that engage in accounting n services a serious problem


1.1 Statement Of The Problem

Has computerization helped in the achievement of efficient management of the organization over the years, there has been the problem of accounting services been manually operated which result to loss of valuable time spent on any accounting transactions and because of poor management efficiency people are discouraged from using these services

Furthermore, the introduction of computer services has created its own problems which rage from the type of installation, the employment of qualified personnel to operate them, the cost of installation and maintenance and cost of software packages etc.

It is in view of the above problems that adequate case are taken to find solution to these problems the study is intend to assess the important of computerized accounting system in our organization, it is also aimed at ascertaining if there has been improvement in the system in terms of time saving to both the organization and their customers.


1.2 Objective Of The Study

The aim of this study is to know how computer aids management in making effective decision, the extent of improvement in the system of accounting operation in organization through computerization.


1.2 Need For The Study

The need for this study is to determine

  1. If there is basis to sustain the alleged unemployment which will result as computer over take the operations which were previously handed manually.
  2. To access the benefit enjoyed by customers of the organization through computerization.
  3. To determine if there has been a significant improvement in the system of operation in out organization through the computerization process.

1.3 Scope Of The Study

Computerized accounting system is an activity or process that should be done or adopted by well meaning organization. This study therefore cover the application of computers in our organizations the effect of computerized accounting system in our organization etc.


1.4 Assumption Of The Study

The computerized accounting system of an organization stem of the fact that records are used in preparing annual financial statement which are used by the management to know the end of each period.
It is therefore essential that computerized of accounting information in a trim helps to ascertain the reliability accountability efficiency and effectiveness of accounting information.


1.5 Definition Of Terms

At this stage, the writer deem it necessary to define the following key terms employed in the work in order to make the reader to easily understand.

Accounting;

This is a means by which management are informed on the financial process of planning and control it involves the process of recording classifying, reporting and interpreting the financial data of an organizations.

Computer;

This is an electronic device that is capable of solving problems by accepting data, performing prescribed operation on the data and supplying the result of these operation.

Hardware;

This is the total physical aspects of the computer, that is all the parts of computer that can be touched. Example, keyboard the display units the CPU box, the cables, the printers etc.

Software;

These are the various programmes or set of instructions given to the computer in order to perform a specific task.

Information;

This is the data which have been processed.

Input Device;

This can be machine for transforming by which system are administers it involves letting things done through proper people and channel.

Organization;

This is a group of people with a specific purpose having pulled their resources together for some business transaction.

System;

This is a set of procedures of inter-restated elements in organization arranged in such a way that the efficient function of the system if ensured.

Programming;

This is the act of writing the instruction required to make computer do what it is instructed to do.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The use of computerized accounting information for efficient management and accounting control has found wide acceptance in Nigeria Breweries. So if other firms have opportunity, they will computerize their accounting information for efficient management also. It can be observed that Nigeria Breweries operate computerized accounting information which enables them to produce quality, accurate and faster data for their effective and efficient management.

The computerized system enables Nigeria Breweries to have work schedules and operating instruments for each programme available. It also helps the firm in carrying out its regular internal audit of the electronic data processing (EDP) functions so as to establish all necessary control.

Computerized accounting information has exact effect on reports produced by Nigeria Breweries, the firm can now produce reports faster for executives use and execution of management policies and controls. Even external auditors can rely on the quality of accounting information produced. Since it is computerized, can retrieve any information if the need arises without going through books after books in search of information.

It is not only Nigeria Breweries that have been influenced by computer, other firms are getting in valued into computerized information. The establishment without computers said that financial was their major constraint. Some of them maintain low volume of business transactions, which it uneconomical to install computers. However, such companies expressed desire to install computers and computerize their information once the constraints were removed. This shows that every establishment is working towards computerizing its organization despite its demerit yet its benefits in all areas of business and like are enough to justify its acquisition. Beside, in accounting information, computer is also used in other fields of life like, education, e.g. programmed instruction and evaluation: simulation e.g. Systems weapon simulation and control e.g. Missile guidance and process control.
According to Adiele (1981), it can also be sued in games and recreation telephone dialing, grade reporting etc. computerized accounting system has helped the firms in pursuit of their organizational prospects in the world of computer and has also enabled them to achieve their aims of installing computer and the benefits of computer justifying its installation. The benefits of operating a computerized accounting system can be summarized below.
Computer performs many accounting functions at the same prepared at the same time. The processing of accounting information is faster with computer, especially the case when many functions can be performed simultaneously. This satisfies the criteria of fairness in selection of much information system. That accounting data processing with computer are more accurate. It is also one of good information system.

This reduces staff requirement of an organization. This is not only for saving cost but also makes it easy for staff management. The accounting information presented are of high quality and standardized. Too much paper work is reduced thereby achieving the criteria of relevant information system and reduce excess paper cost.
Furthermore, it would be wrong to assume that because of inherent benefit in using computer to perform accounting functions that the user do not encounter any problems, like:

Some of the programmes (packages) were. Found to be restricted to the users. It is very expensive to maintain computers in terms of initial capital outlay. Spare parts and sandy electricity (generator) to take care of unstable power supply of power Holding company.

Some programmes cannot translate as efficiently as possible into machine language, which can cope directly for example compilers.

They also maintain that computer has resulted to the retaining of accountants who had no computer education on computer application. Because this training enable them to have practical and theoretical experience of computer, which give them knowledge to produce quality and accurate accounting information.


5.2 Recommendation

In the light of the summary, the following recommendations were made which, it is hoped if implemented, will enhance computer information in the organization.

  1. Computer rooms should be locked with key and only authorized officials should be admitted into such rooms. This will reduce the incidence of outsiders gaining access into companies secretes.
  2. Computer users should ensure that there would be Visual Display Unit (VDU), a device similar to a TV screen. This will display any instruction to be stored in the computer with that, any information being processed can be seen on the screen.
  3. The organization does not operate on off-site storage for its back-up copies. Back up copies are stored in the organization’s main site which means that the essence is destroyed they are subject to the same risk as the original document. This goes to show that these copies are not well protected from unauthorized access, fire, water, damage from water sprinkler, commotion or riot. To help this situation, back-up copies should be stored in location independent from that of the organization. Example of location are back vaults or special storage facilities.
  4. The use of administration procedure manuals. Computer usage reports and console print-out are not currently emphasized in the organization. There is need for the organization to lay emphasis on these, their usage go along way in ensuring that before any error or fraud gets out of hand, such can easily be detected. Administrative procedure manual usage will assist the computer operation in carrying out their jobs in accordance with the operating instruments. Computer usage reports and console print out should be used in order to identify those employees who make use of printout and intervention that may have occurred while the computer is in operation. This shall help to check unauthorized access.
  5. School offering computer course should install computer. This will help potential computer users study practical applications of computer and re-emphasizes theoretical aspect.

5.3 Conclusion

Man instinctively resists changes that have many marked effects on his daily life even if the changes is what an objective observer would consider to be better.

In words of Ola (2003), the advent of computer technology and its subsequent application in the business world has necessitated a great changes in the role of accounting information in the computer based accounting system.

The role has helped managements information technology present a timely, relevant, and accurate to management policies. But we are at the age of rapid technological change. What is invested today becomes obsolete tomorrow.
Therefore, keeping pace with even, changing computer world is one of the greater challenges facing information technology.


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