Ethno-Religious Conflicts And Its Economic And Educational Impact On Christian Youths In Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State , Nigeria

Project And Seminar Material On Christian Religious Studies

Ethno-Religious Conflicts And Its Economic And Educational Impact On Christian Youths In Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State , Nigeria


 

Abstract


This study was carried out to examine ethno-religious conflicts, and its economic and educational impact on christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study specifically was aimed to ascertain the prevalence of ethno-religious conflicts in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria, ascertain the effect of ethno-religious conflicts on the economic well-being of christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria, determine whether ethno-religious conflicts has a significant negative impact on the educational development of christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria, and ascertain the possible ways of curbing the incidence of ethno-religious conflicts in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of people residing in rural areas who continuously experience ethno-religious conflicts in Birnin. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores.The hypotheses was tested using Chi-square Statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of ethno-religious conflicts in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria is high. The study also revealed that ethno-religious conflicts have a significant negative impact on the educational development of christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should provide dialogue workshops, conferences where people of ethnic and religious groups will be the opportunity to speak out their grievances and ensure peaceful dialogues among the people. The government must ensure that such summits are well equipped and well-coordinated such that non aggressive speech should be taken personal. All should speak out their minds and profile solution to their challenges. To mention but few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Nigeria is sometimes described as a severely divided country in which key political issues are aggressively and/or violently debated along the country’s numerous ethnic, religious, and regional divisions (Smyth and Robinson, 2001). Nigeria is properly regarded as one of Africa’s most severely split governments, owing to its complex network of politically salient identities and a history of chronic and seemingly intractable conflicts and instability (Osaghae and Suberu, 2005). Nigeria has suffered a recurring issue of territorial or state legitimacy since its creation as a colonial state, which has frequently hampered its efforts at national cohesiveness, democratization, stability, and economic reform (Maier, 2000). The civil war in the late 1960s, which erupted shortly after the country’s independence in 1960, appears to have been the crisis’s apex. Nigeria has experienced a dramatic surge in conflicts since the country’s transition to civilian governance in 1999.

Members of various ethnic nations became conscious of their separate identities as a result of the sporadic occurrence of episodic social interpretation of intergroup connections following these developments (Sanda, 1999). The intense communal and religious conflict has resulted in the formation and operation of several militia groups, the most prominent of which are the Bakassi Boys, the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), the Oodua People Congress (OPC), the Egbesu Boys, the Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP), the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), and, more recently, Boko These Militia organizations have provided a haven for the army of unemployed teenagers (Alegbeleye, 2014).

Ethno-religious crises are a recurrent occurrence in human history, and there is barely any race that has not experienced one at some point. The Quran and the Bible, the world’s religious holy books, recorded how our forefathers in the past went through ethnic crises, religious crises, or ethno-religious crises at various points in recent history. This is to say that the ethno-religious issue is neither unique to Nigeria nor a recent phenomena (Omoregbe, 2002).

Since Nigeria’s independence, ethnic and religious sensitivities have posed a threat to the country’s progress, coexistence, peace, and unity as members of a single sovereign democratic state. There are only a few states in Nigeria that have not seen some type of ethnic or religious crisis in the recent past. If a state is devoid of crises, it will experience development. Ethnicity refers to a group that differs from the general population of a community due to racial origin or cultural background.

Ethnicity is defined by Gould and Kilb (1956) and Nnoli (1978) as a social formation characterised by communal qualities of its boundaries. Language, culture, or both culture and language may be relevant communal variables. This indicates that an ethnic group will have its own territory under a policy, which will be distinct from other ethnicities. Using Nigeria as an example, the Yoruba in western Nigeria, the Hausa in northern Nigeria, the Igbo in eastern Nigeria, and the Ogoni in southern Nigeria are the country’s primary ethnic groups.

The vilification of ethnicity as the scapegoat for all vices linked with the Nigerian body polity has elevated the subject to the forefront of the study of Nigerian political economics. No study is considered scholarly if it does not examine the importance or insignificance of ethnicity in its analysis and findings.

Thus, analysts concerned in nationalalism, decolonization, national integration, political parties, military intervention, corruption, economic development, structural adjustment, democratization, and violent conflict have all studied the ‘ethnicity’ component. This was true even in the 1960s and 1970s, when the major intellectual traditions believed ethnicity was a secondary explanatory variable, at best an epiphenomenon and at worst a disguise for class privilege (Sklar, 1967).

The upshot of such interest in ethnicity, which is related to the high level of ‘ethnic consciousness’ in Nigerian society (Lewis et al; 2002), is a plethora of ethnicity literature, making a critique Herculean. According to Jinadu (1994), “the study of ethnic relations in Nigeria has been through a number of phases reflecting changes in the country’s political position as well as changes in fashions and trends in the social science research agenda.”
Taking a historical perspective on the idea of ethnicity, Joireman (2003) claims that: ethnicity did not become general usage until the later part of the twentieth century; it is a term that is hotly debated in academic literature. When it comes to nationalism, Joireman believes that ethnicity is the first manifestation of identity.

A religion is the belief in the presence of a god or gods, as well as the behaviors associated with their worship. It is also one of the faith systems based on the belief in the existence of a specific god or gods, such as the Jewish religion, Christian religion, Islamic religion, and a variety of other global religions. Almost every human being believes in a Supreme Being (known by various local names) who rules over the cosmos – both the visible and hidden worlds. He establishes a moral standard for man to strive for and is capable of punishing man both now and in the future, among other things. Religion is defined as man’s attempt to satisfy the Supreme Being, particularly to achieve a favorable place for himself in the hereafter. It stems from an intrinsic propensity and is so personal because one has the choice to believe or disagree (Olayiwola, 2011).

Religion can also be defined as an institutional system of ideas, values, and symbolic rituals that provide a collection of main solutions to concerns such as the ultimate meaning of death, obstacles, pain, and so on. Religion is viewed as a social institution in this determination. Religion, in my opinion, is a belief in the existence of a supernatural being known as God who created heaven, earth, and those who live on them (Samari, 2016).
Nigeria is a religiously pluralistic country in which everyone is allowed to practice whichever religion appeals to him or her, whether Islam, Christianity, or African traditional religion. Man has always had an innate drive to worship since time immemorial, and it is this that has resulted in the formation of a mosaic of ideas, attitudes, and behaviors. Throughout history, religion has been regarded as a global institution encompassing a set of fundamental ideas and activities.

Religion is supposed to create a healthy terrain for a functional and flourishing society in all societies. Scholars frequently see religion as a living thing, and any living thing is keenly interested in what is going on in its surroundings. Furthermore, every religion in every context preached peace, with oneself, with others, and with God. Unfortunately, there isn’t much tranquility in our culture these days (Okwueze, 2003). Religion’s history cannot be divorced from the struggle that has accompanied it throughout history. All of Nnoli’s observations about situation prevention are fairly common in Nigerian society. This creates divisive and socioeconomic competitions with anti-social consequences.

Religion, on the other hand, is such an important part of human society that it cannot be disregarded. Its absence would make world history incomplete. Religion is as old as mankind and will most likely continue to exist for as long as man exists (Omoregbe, 2002). It is difficult, if not impossible, to provide a generally acceptable definition of religion. The reason for this could be linked back to the discipline’s breadth, as it pervades many facets of life and allows for individual viewpoint (Osibodu, 2000).

Religion is derived from three Latin words: ligare, which means to bind, relegere, which means to connect, and religio, which means relationship. As a result, religion can be defined as something that connects man to a transcendent being, a god who is believed to exist and is worshiped by man; man and God (Omoregbe, 2002).
Conflict (crisis) is defined as a state or situation of discord in an interactional process. A crisis occurs when two or more ideals, views, and viewpoints are inherently incompatible and have not yet been harmonized or agreed upon (Bagaji, 2012). It is critical to define development in order to comprehend the concept of socioeconomic development. In general, development is defined as a state in which anything transitions from an undesirable to palatable one. Development may also refer to an improvement in people’s lifestyles as a result of improved education, money, skill development, and employment (Adeniyi, 1993). It is a process of economic and social transformation that is influenced by cultural and environmental influences. As a result, socioeconomic development refers to the process of a society’s social and economic development. It is quantified using measures such as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), life expectancy, literacy, and employment levels (Okonjo-Iweala and Osafo-Kwaako, 2007). The necessity for religious tolerance among diverse religion adherents is and will continue to be important in the country’s socioeconomic development. There can be no meaningful growth without peace, which is why the government at all levels should make a concerted effort to reduce the country’s level of crises to the minimal minimum. The reality is that good governance and accountability are sacred because they promote the socioeconomic development of the country.

Nigeria has a long history of ethno-religious strife. According to (Oji and Anugwom, 2004), ethnic and religious tensions and divisions are linked phenomenally in contemporary Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Ethno-religious conflict impact negatively in many forms of development such as inability for people to interact with one another which also create unhealthy child growth by seeing people outside their ethnic and religious groups as evil. Furthermore, during crisis a lot of people abandon their ethnic, cultural, religions and traditional values to pledge allegiance to new, artificial and unproven states. This unfortunate state has plugged people into deeper crisis, poor interactions resulting into fierce elimination of people. In Nigeria since the return of civil rule in 1999, domestic instability arising from ethno-religious, inter and intra communal conflicts in varying degrees and dimension have been recorded. This crisis has implication on national security, infrastructure, education and economic development of Nigerian, (Fawole, 2010). Nigeria is in danger; the country is torn apart by twin force of religion and ethnicity. Worrisomely, there seems to be no solution in sight. The current book haram crisis which has so far claimed innumerable lives and damaged properties is fast becoming an issue for which every Nigerian should be concerned. The amalgamation policy by the British colonialist such that large number of heterogeneous people with their different cultural and political systems, language and religions was bound to be inherently conflict and crisis prone. Since then, the country has struggled to achieve unity in diversity, national integration has remained difficult to achieve, yet it is needed to attain the universal goal of development, that is, the pursuit of people’s welfare and wellbeing. In view of the above, this study seeks to assess ethno-religious conflicts, and its economic and educational impact on christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria


1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to examine ethno-religious conflicts, and its economic and educational impact on christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Thus, the following are the specific objectives;

  1. To ascertain the prevalence of ethno-religious conflicts in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  2. To ascertain the effect of ethno-religious conflicts on the economic well-being of christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  3. To determine whether ethno-religious conflicts has a significant negative impact on the educational development of christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  4. To ascertain the possible ways of curbing the incidence of ethno-religious conflicts in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions guide this study;

  1. What is the prevalence of ethno-religious conflicts in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria?
  2. What is the effect of ethno-religious conflicts on the economic well-being of christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria?
  3. Does ethno-religious conflicts hve a significant negative impact on the educational development of christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria?
  4. What are the possible ways of curbing the incidence of ethno-religious conflicts in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: The incidence of ethno-religious conflicts has no economic and educational impact on christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  • Ha: The incidence of ethno-religious conflicts has economic and educational impact on christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will contribute to the various writings for instance, journals and textbook that have been highlighting on the dangers of ethno-religious conflicts and how to handle it. It will help policy makers in the country and the world over to know the root causes of ethno-religious conflicts, so as to explore strategies by which the negative effects of the conflicts could be mitigated in the future. Thus making lasting policies that will obliterate ethno-religious chauvinism and its consequent effect on national stability and development.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on ethno-religious conflicts, and its economic and educational impact on christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study will cover only people residing in rural areas who continuously experience ethno-religious conflicts in Birnin.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Ethno-Religious:

Is a dual word coined from Ethnicity (ethnic) and Religion; it simply denotes ‘of or pertaining to ethnicity and religion’. It will therefore be better understood if the root words (Ethnicity and Religion) are defined.

Ethnicity:

The concept of ethnicity refers to a social identity formation that rests upon culturally specific practices and a unique set of symbols and cosmology”. Lanre Olu Adeyemi (2006).

Ethnicity according to Nnoli (1998) is characterized by a common consciousness of being one in relation to other relevant ethnic groups. He contends further that: ethnicity is a “socio- political phenomenon, associated with interactions Law and Security in Nigeria 238 among members of a society consisting of diverse ethnic groups characterized by cultural and linguistic similarities, values and common consciousness”.

Religion:

The term Religion is such a complex one that agreeing with one meaning is quite difficult. Scholars like B. Taylor (2005)’ define religion ‘as a belief in spiritual beings’. Frazer” on his part defines it thus ‘religion is the propitiation or conciliation of powers superior to man, which are believed to direct and control the cause of nature and human life’. Marx on his part saw religion as the ‘opium of the masses’.

Conflicts:

Conflicts is a perception or experience of an event or situation as an intolerable difficulty that exceeds the person’s current resources and coping mechanisms.” (James and Gilliland, 2001)

Ethno-Religious Conflicts:

Ethno-religious conflict is a multi- causal variable Salawu (2010). By ethno-religious conflicts, it means a situation in which the relationship between members of one ethnic or religious group and another such group in a multi-ethnic and multi-religious society is characterized by lack of cordiality, mutual, suspicion, and fear and a tendency towards violent confrontation (B. Salawu, 2010)


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter (chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on ethno-religious conflicts, and its economic and educational impact on christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine ethno-religious conflicts, and its economic and educational impact on christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study specifically was aimed to ascertain the prevalence of ethno-religious conflicts in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria, ascertain the effect of ethno-religious conflicts on the economic well-being of christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria, determine whether ethno-religious conflicts has a significant negative impact on the educational development of christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria, and ascertain the possible ways of curbing the incidence of ethno-religious conflicts in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are people residing in rural areas who continuously experience ethno-religious conflicts in Birnin.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The prevalence of ethno-religious conflicts in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria is high.
  2. Ethno-religious conflicts has a negative effect on the economic well-being of christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  3. Ethno-religious conflicts have a significant negative impact on the educational development of christian youths in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  4. The possible ways of curbing the incidence of ethno-religious conflicts in Birnin Gwari LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria includes: political leaders, traditional rulers, community/religious leaders, youth organization and non-governmental organization should be united with the aspiration of promoting peace and development among the various ethno-religious groups in the state, there should be fairness and equity in the establishment and distribution of social amenities and infrastructural development in Birnin Gwari local government, security agencies should be equipped, retrained so as to enhance their ability in carrying out their duties and responsibilities of promoting peace and security the local government. Etc.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The government should provide dialogue workshops, conferences where people of ethnic and religious groups will be the opportunity to speak out their grievances and ensure peaceful dialogues among the people. The government must ensure that such summits are well equipped and well-coordinated such that non aggressive speech should be taken personal. All should speak out their minds and profile solution to their challenges.
  2. Securities send to this area to resolve conflicts should be well educated on the needed of putting the interest of the country and the people they are to save without religious or ethnic sentiments they should be monitored by the superiors to ensure the do the right thing, without ethnic or religious sentiment. They should also be trained on how to handle social dispute without stirring up another crisis.
  3. Religious groups in Nigeria should put in measures to caution or punish their adherents in any action that promotes violence. The religious groups should also set up a committee that will monitor and counsel adherents who propagate violence or engage in violence.

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