Ergonomic Assessment Of Korope Mini Buses

Project and Seminar Material for Mechanical Engineering ME

Ergonomic Assessment Of Korope Mini Buses


The objective research work was to carry out an ergonomic assessment of the korope buses plying Osunroads, in other to determine their suitability to the passenger. These was achieved by collecting the anthropometric data of korope bus users and comparing them with the passenger environment inside the korope buses.

An aluminum venial caliper was used to measured stature, knee height, shoulder breadth, hip breadth and sitting among other anthropometry variables measure. Also the of metal meter tape, some of the design variable measured ware: seat height, seat length, seat width and back rest. For korope buses, 595 passengers were measured.

The result showed that male passenger were significantly larger than female in the 95th percentile in all anthropometric variables considered except in the maximum body breadth.

However, due to some unsuitability of some design variables of korope buses, appropriate ergonomic design specification were propose for the future construction of korope buese due to the research data.

Table of Contents

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Contents
  • Lists of Figures
  • Lists of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Preambles
  • 1.2 Aim and Objectives
  • 1.3 Scope

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Transportation in Nigeria
  • 2.1.1 Road Network
  • 2.2 Osun State
  • 2.2.1 Transportation in Osun State
  • 2.3 Korope (Mini Bus)
  • 2.4 Ergonomics
  • 2.4.1 Fields of Ergonomics
  • 2.4.2 Ergonomics Assessment of Buses
  • Passenger Environment
  • 2.5 Anthropometric (Body Measurement)
  • 2.5.1 Classes of Anthropometry
  • 2.5.2 Korope Users Anthropometry
  • 2.6 Anthropometric Analysis in Mini Buses

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Equipment Used for Measuring Anthropometry

Chapter Four

4.0 Result and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results of the Measured Anthropometric Data
  • 4.1.1 Comparisons of Anthropometric Variables Between Male and Female Korope Passengers
  • 4.2 Result of the Comparison of the Antropometric Data of Passengers to Korope Passenger Environment
  • 4.3 Discussion and Data Analysis
  • 4.3.1 Passenger Environment Inside Korope Buses
  • 4.3.2 Comment and Sugestion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • 5.2.1 Recommendation for Further Work
  • References
  • Appendix A
  • Appendix B

Lists of Figures

  • Fig 2.1 Example of mini bus
  • Fig 2.2 General dimensions of the HFE discipline
  • Fig 3.1 Aluminum venial caliper
  • Fig 3.2 Photograph taken during a measuring session using an Aluminum venial caliper
  • Fig 3.3 Metal tape rule
  • Fig 3.4 Photograph taken during a measuring session using a tape rule
  • Fig 3.3 Standing height
  • Fig 3.4 Anthropometric measurements 2-10
  • Fig 3.5 Some labeled parts of the passenger environment

List of Table

  • Table 4.1 Percentile calculated for male anthropometric variables
  • Table 4.2 Percentile calculated for female anthropometric variables
  • Table 4.3 Percentile calculate for passenger environment variables
  • Table 4.4 Result of the maximum and minimum range for the passenger environment variables
  • Table 4.6 Result of the comparison of anthropometric data of male passengers
    korope passenger environment
  • Table 4.8 Summary of data collected through the questionnaires administered to the korope bus passengers

Chapter One

1.0. Introduction

1.1. Preambles

Ergonomics (human factors) as the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of the interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data, and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance(The International Ergonomics Association IEA, 2003). Ergonomists contribute to the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, environments, and systems to make them compatible with the needs, abilities, and limitations of people. Ergonomics discipline promotes a holistic, human-centered approach to work systems design that considers physical, cognitive social, organizational, environmental, and other relevant factors Karwowski, 2001; Vicente, 2004; Stanton et al., 2004).

According to Karwowski, 2005, Over the last 50 years, ergonomics, a term that is used here synonymously with human factors has been evolving as a unique and independent discipline that focuses on the nature of human–artifact interactions, viewed from the unified perspective of the science, engineering, design, technology, and management of human-compatible systems, including a variety of natural and artificial products, processes, and living environments. The main aim of ergonomics is to ensure the Human–Technology, Technology–System, Human–System and Human–Machine relationships. Therefore, ergonomists put human needs, ability and limitation at the focus of designing and evaluating tasks, jobs, products, environments and systems.

Korope are examples of mini buses that are used as a fixed routes public transit and passenger carrying buses within Osun state and its locality with the usual colour combination of blue with yellow stripe. These buses are designed to carry fewer people than the normal full size buses. Although, there are other buses of different sizes and sitting capacity (Between 7 to 30 seats) but korope has the maximum of 7 seating capacity. That is the maximum passenger korope can occupy is 7 passenger; the driver exclusive. These buses are locally built or fabricated in places like Lagos state and in Ibadan.

1.2 Aim and Objectives

The aim of this project work is to make use of Artificial Neural Network for the Allocation of Anthropometric in Minibuses (Korope).

The objectives of this research are:

  1. To collect the anthropometric data of the passengers of minibuses (korope) and design data in the passengers’ compartments and their environment, inside the buses;
  2. To determine the percentiles of users that the buses could accommodate and
  3. To propose appropriate ergonomic design specifications of minibuses (korope) based on the determined percentile and the anthropometric data of passengers collected.

1.3. Scope

  1. Strictly minibuses (korope) buses operating in Osogbo were the main focus for this research work.
  2. All ranges of passengers riding in minibuses (korope) buses were considered.
  3. Minimum of 1000 passengers were considered for each anthropometric variable to be measured.
  4. Minimum of 50 buses were put into consideration.

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The following conclusion were made from this research:

  1. At 99% confident level, average female passenger in 95percentile are significantly larger than the average male passenger in all the anthropometry variables considered except the maximum body breadth.
  2. For better convenience in the use of korope buses, in addition to other features of the buses e.g. space for luggage.

5.2 Recommendations

5.2.1 Recommendation for further work

Future research is require to develop further understanding of the topic which are:

  1. Computer simulation should be carried out so as to encourage or aid measurement of some essential static and dynamic posture. This will be possible because the simulation model will provide the following functions among others.
  2. Simulation of bus operating task under specific constrain
  3. Selection of human model using the collected anthropometry data of the bus

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