Environmental Waste Management And Disposal Practices Among Urban Households In Nsukka Education Zone

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

Environmental Waste Management And Disposal Practices Among Urban Households In Nsukka Education Zone


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the environmental waste management and disposal practices among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone. Enugu State. The study was specifically set to ascertain the level of urban residents knowledge on environmental waste management and disposal practices, determine the attitude of urban residents towards environmental waste management and disposal practices, ascertain the waste disposal practices among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone, and find out the factors contributing to poor waste management practice among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of urban residents of Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the level of urban residents knowledge on environmental waste management and disposal practices is low. Furthermore, the study revealed that the factors contributing to poor waste management practice among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone includes: poor attitude of residents towards waste management, low level of awareness, limited waste disposal infrastructures increasing waste generation due to population increases, and poor centralized waste collection container. Therefore, it is recommended that the authority could formulate byelaws requiring all urban residents members at household, institution and business places to sort refuse by type before storage to reduce large volumes by segregating biodegradable and non-biodegradable and re- enforcement and compliance of law to regulate refuse disposal which is stipulated in the Environmental Act number 20 of year 2004. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Waste often generated by human beings since time immemorial has continued to be a threatening problem and a growing one that is of major concern to every nation of the world. In Nigeria today, among the pressing environmental and public health issues are the problems of solid waste generation, control and disposal. Although the problem of solid waste disposal is as old as man’s existence that is inextricably linked to the generation of waste, the truth is that in many cities, it has become so intractable that even the government is overwhelmed (Jimoh, 2005, Momodu, Dimuna and Dimuna, 2011).

Waste in the words of Douglas (2004) is any unwanted and discarded material that arises from the activities of humans and animals on earth. For Onwughara, Nnorom and Kanno (2010), Urban household Solid Waste covers a broad range of materials including garbage, refuse from factories, commercial refuse, construction and demolition debris, dead animals and abandoned vehicles, food particles, plastics, bottles, polythene material (nylon bag), metallic objects, furniture/wood material, paper and some other unclassified wastes. Rodgers (2011) submits that waste management is a systematic control of the generation, storage, collection, transportation, separation, processing, recovery and disposal of waste.

In pre-industrial times, when population was small, waste was disposed on the ground, thrown into water, burnt or thrown into pit where it would turn to compost manure to improve soil fertility. From history, man is believed to have always adopted dumping, burning, manual recycling and waste minimization as waste management strategies with less than proportionate result in terms of cleaner and healthier environment. One can therefore say that human development or growth has been intrinsically tied to the management of waste, apparently due to its effects on public and environmental health, (Chukwuemeka, Ugwu and Igwegbe, 2012, and Ndinwa, Akpafun and Chukwuma, 2012).

Today, due to rapid industrialization, increase in population and urbanization, the generation, disposal or management of waste has proved to be a major environmental and public health issue. This experience is always so, especially in developing countries like Nigeria where there is lack of or inappropriate strategies for managing wastes. Urban waste management today has become an intractable environmental problem that can be likened to a monster staring everybody on the face. Solid waste dumps apart from its gory sight that destroy the aesthetics (beauty) of the environment have always affected the people’s health by decomposing to produce provoking odour or contaminating our drinking water. This no doubt, causes avoidable epidemics.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Compact waste control activities cover all actions that seek to reduce the negative impacts on health, environment and economy. Developing countries are seriously facing the associated problems in collection, transportation and disposal of communal solid waste. In Lagos State, due to unplanned communities and developments in major cities, ecological and sanitary conditions are becoming very complex (LBSG, 2010). Due to a lack of awareness and low income sources, dwellers are forced to live with unhealthy and unhygienic conditions. An improper solid waste management system may contribute to a worsening ecological degradation of the community. Illegal dumping of communal solid waste is responsible for a number of diseases in Nigeria.

Per-head statistics of urban households waste generation in developing countries according to Ashley, Malak and Salah (2013) is increasing year after year due to unprecedented trend in the growth pattern of urban areas. The modelling and density of urban areas, the physical composition of waste, density of waste, temperature and precipitation, scavenger’s activity for recyclable separation, treatment capacity, insufficiency and limited resources are making tasks very tough for the administration authority in developing countries. Due to diverse life styles in urban areas, development authorities are not able to offer analogous type of waste management system for different communities, therefore in Enugu State a lot of illegal (unsupervised) waste management systems are working. Collection efficiency of the existing solid waste systems in Lagos State is very low due to a lack of storage bins and improper management system (Humphrey and Partnas, 2016).

Open dumping, open burning and un-engineered sanitary landfills are common practice throughout the cities and urban areas in Nigeria. Due to improper waste disposal and collection systems, urban residents are facing serious negative ecological impacts in developing countries (Henry and Zac, 2014). In Enugu State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general aim of this study is to examine the environmental waste management and disposal practices among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone. Specifically, this study will;

  1. Ascertain the level of urban residents knowledge on environmental waste management and disposal practices.
  2. Determine the attitude of urban residents towards environmental waste management and disposal practices
  3. Ascertain the waste disposal Practices among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone.
  4. Find out the factors contributing to poor waste management practice among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone.

1.4 Research Question

This study will be guided by the following questions derived from the objectives of the study;

  1. What is the level of urban residents knowledge on environmental waste management and disposal practices?
  2. What is the attitude of urban residents towards environmental waste management and disposal practices?
  3. What are the waste disposal Practices among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone?
  4. What are the factors contributing to poor waste management practice among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no effective waste management practice among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone.
  • Ha: There is a effective waste management practice among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The relevance of this study cannot be overstated. Fore-mostly the study will communicate the existing waste technologies in use in Nigeria and provide information on the current local factors that inhibit the successful collection of wastes generated by citizens, and give recommendation on how effective waste collection could be achieved. The outcome of this study will provide policymakers with necessary information to help make quality and cost effective decisions.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the environmental waste management and disposal practices among urban households in Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the the environmental waste management and disposal practices among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone. However, the participants for this study will be obtained from the urban residents of Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Waste Management:

Refers to the “collection, transportation, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials”


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the environmental waste management and disposal practices among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone. Enugu State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the environmental waste management and disposal practices among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone. Enugu State. The study was specifically set to ascertain the level of urban residents knowledge on environmental waste management and disposal practices, determine the attitude of urban residents towards environmental waste management and disposal practices, ascertain the waste disposal practices among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone, and find out the factors contributing to poor waste management practice among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are urban residents of Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The level of urban residents knowledge on environmental waste management and disposal practices is low.
  2. The attitude of urban residents towards environmental waste management and disposal practices is negative.
  3. The waste disposal Practices among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone includes: composting, burning, dumping in river, indiscriminate dumping, and others.
  4. The factors contributing to poor waste management practice among urban households in Nsukka Education Zone includes: poor attitude of residents towards waste management, low level of awareness, limited waste disposal infrastructures increasing waste generation due to population increases, and poor centralized waste collection container.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Continuous community sensitization should be offered about proper waste disposal through a multi-disciplinary approach and conducting awareness campaigns.
  2. The authority could formulate byelaws requiring all urban residents members at household, institution and business places to sort refuse by type before storage to reduce large volumes by segregating biodegradable and non-biodegradable and re- enforcement and compliance of law to regulate refuse disposal which is stipulated in the Environmental Act number 20 of year 2004.
  3. The government must establish community health education centers where members of the community can access information regarding proper waste disposal and diseases outbreak.
  4. Families must be assisted in determining what is going on in their household which can be led to disease outbreak and tremendous restructuring, rethinking, shift the culture in the community and the culture we have at approaching the problem.

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