Impact Of Environmental Factors Affecting Teaching And Learning Of Adult Learners

Project and Seminar Material Under Adult Education

Impact Of Environmental Factors Affecting Teaching And Learning Of Adult Learners


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of environmental factors affecting teaching and learning of adult learners using selected secondary schools in Oko, Anambra State as a case study. The study was specifically set for assessing the impact of environmental factors such as lack of adequate infrastructural/learning, over crowded class room, school location/climate, and the school security situation on the teaching of adult learners in secondary schools. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of adult learners in selected secondary schools in Oko, Anambra State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between school environmental factors and the effective teaching of adult learners. The study also reveals that the level of availability of infrastructural/learning facilities significantly affects the teaching and learning of adult learners. Therefore, it is recommended that seasoned educationist and administrators with good reputation and experience should be appointed as administrators of schools. This will enable them to articulate policies and govern the learning institutions in a way that meets globally acceptable standards. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Problem

Environment could be described as the sum total of what is around something or someone. It includes living things and natural forces. The environment of living things provides conditions for development and growth, as well as danger and damage; as living things do not simply exist in their environment, they constantly interact with it. Organisms change in response to conditions in their environment and the environment consists of the interactions among plants, animals, soil, water, temperature, light and to other living and non-living things (Ajayi, 2001 and Oluchukwu, 2000).

Hence the word environment is used to talk about many things by people in different fields of knowledge (like history, geography or biology) use the differently). An electromagnetic environment is the various radio waves that equipment such as radio and reader can meet. Galactic environment refers to condition between the stove. It is universally accepted, that education enables individuals to contribute to the development and improvement in the quality of life for themselves, their communities and the nation as a whole.

The school environment refers to factors within the school that influence the teaching-learning process. The school environment includes classrooms, library, technical workshops, teachers’ quality, teaching methods, peers, among others variables that can affect the teaching–learning process (Ajayi 2001). The extent to which pupils learn could be enhanced depending on what the school environment provides to the learners and the teacher.

It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social political and economic emancipation, effective teaching-learning process and academic performance of pupils. Relating this study to international occurrences are the assertions of Williams, Persaud and Turner (2008) quoting Marsden (2005) which reported that safe and orderly classroom environment, school facilities were significantly related to students academic achievement in schools.

In developed countries like the United Kingdom and the Unites States of America, teaching and learning may not be affected by similar challenges as in the developing countries. As the developing countries talk of awareness and wastage due to illiteracy of the parents, the developed countries have concentrated in funding their education without fear of any wastage or poor enrolment (MOEST: Report on Sector Review and Development, 2003).

In New York, the government has put up measures to ensure all schools have all the required physical facilities, instructional materials among others variables that may lead to effective teaching-learning process. Instructional materials are a major component in the process of teaching and learning and textbooks are often the most cost effective means of improving academic achievement and increasing the efficiency of schools (Psachropoulous & Woodhall, 1995).

In the developing countries, poor learning environments have always been identified as key factors that lead to poor performance in public primary schools (UNICEF, 2003). This is due to overstretching of the available resources due to increased enrolment. In Uganda, physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on the teachers, pupils and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms and inconsistent temperatures make teaching-learning process difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among the pupils and higher absentee rates among pupils (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001 and Ostendorf, 2001).

Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on pupils’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities which creates uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for the teachers combined with frustrating behaviour by the pupil including poor concentration also have an effect on the teaching learning process. The situation is not any different here in Kenya where several schools suffer due to lack of or inadequacy of physical facilities and instructional materials (UNICEF, 2003). Unless schools are adequately provided with physical facilities and instructional materials, effective teaching and learning may not take place.

Class size has also been an issue that affects the teaching-learning process in most schools in the developing countries. In Kenya, since the inception of Free Primary Education (FPE), there has been increased enrolment which leads to overcrowding in classrooms making the work of the teacher difficult since he/she cannot easily move around in the classroom (Wabuoba, 2011) quoted in Chuma (2012)

The school administration is a crucial factor in the success of a school. The head teacher should be in a position to ensure that all factors within the school that make the school environment favourable for teaching-learning process be put in place to ensure quality standards are maintained. The Education Act of 1968 stipulates that the head teacher is responsible for overall management, control and maintenance of standards in the schools and is accountable for all that happens in the school. He is charged with the duty of planning, organizing, staffing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting (Okumbe, 2001). Teaching-learning process can be measured through assessment that is done to students using continuous assessment tests (CATS), standardized examination.

In Lower Nyokal division school environmental factors such as availability of instructional materials, availability of physical facilities, class size and school location are factors within the school that may affect the teaching-learning process in Homa-Bay district. Effective teaching-learning process may not take place when rate of repetition, drop out and absenteeism seems to be high in the division and this affects performance of learners.

In psychology and medicine a persons environment is the people physical things, places and events that the person lives with. The environment affects the persons behaviour. It affects the persons body, mind and heart (Goliber 2003). Discussions on nature versus nuture are sometimes framed as heredity versus environment. The earth is the only planet in the solar system that support life. In biology and ecology the environment is all of the natural materials and living things including sunlight. This is also called the natural environment. Some people call themselves environmentalists and these people think we must protect the environment (to keep it safte). They think people should not put so much pollution (waste) into the environment. The important things in the environment that we value are called sunlight, and forests. These are renewable natural resources because more grows naturally when we use them. Non-renewable natural resources are important things in the environment that do not come back naturally, for example coal and natural grass (Banning 2001).

Furthermore, the extent to which learner learning could be enhanced depend on the location within the school compound, the structure of the classroom, availability of instructional facilities and access ones. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcome of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the learners.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

One of the factors that effects academic performance is school environment location or site of the school. This is so because in a situation whereby the school is sited in a noisy area like airport, where activities disrupt the teaching or learning of the adult. One will not expect such adult learners in this area to be doing well academically. Onkwo (2004) in his note says that a conducive environment enhances a learners growth and development. Learners feel happy in a peaceful and friendly environment where as schools sited in noisy urban streets are associated with deficits in mental concentration leading to pupils poor performance.

Noise is anything that interferes with teaching or learning processing strategies, feelings for personal control as well as their level of arousal. Economic, motivational and emotion are also other factors that influences academic performance of learners (Franser 1978). Then while some are not so well equipped, the gadgets, resources, facilities in both types of community will influence the learning processes of the learners. Adult learners cannot single handedly achieve all their goals. So they must be equipped with adequate technology facilities such as textbooks, clients, computer, visual and audio-visual aids, photographs and posters.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objectives of this study is to examine the impact of environmental factors affecting teaching and learning of adult learners. Specifically this study will be assessing the impact of environmental factors such as lack of adequate infrastructural/learning, over crowded class room, school location/climate, and the school security situation on the teaching of adult learners in secondary schools.


1.4 Research Questions

  1. Is there any significant relationship between school environmental factors and the effective teaching of adult learners?
  2. Does the level of availability of infrastructural/learning facilities significantly affects the teaching and learning of adult learners?
  3. Does the over crowded classroom significantly affects the teaching and learning of adult learners?
  4. Does school location/climate significantly affects the teaching and learning of adult learners?
  5. Does the school security situation significantly affects the teaching and learning of adult learners?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between school environment and the teaching – learning of adult learners.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between school environment and the teaching – learning of adult learners.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will provide information for educators, corporate bodies and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help students in achieving their academic goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to there centre, which may consequently lead to enhancing students educational outcomes in school. In addition, the fact that this study is conducted is to serve as literature for individual who may want to carry out research on similar topics in the same or related field, and also the entire society will be a beneficiary of the study as individuals, organizations, government parastatals, religions, home etc. who lay their hands on this research work will have the in-depth knowledge of the effect of environment on teaching adult learners.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the impact of environmental factors affecting teaching and learning of adult learners. Hence, the respondents for this study will comprise of adult learners in selected secondary schools in Oko, Anambra State.


1.8 Limitation of Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.7 Definition of Terms

Adult Learner:

A person who is 18 years and above who is involved in forms of learning. They can also be called mature learner, adult returner, adult student and returning adult.

Factors:

Constituent or element that brings about certain effects or results, or indicates a specific multiple, number, or quantity.

Environment:

The aggregate of surrounding things, conditions or influences; surrounding; milieu

Teaching:

Impacting knowledge or skill or instruct (someone) as to how to do something by example or experience

Learning:

The acquisition of knowledge or skills through experience, study, or by being taught.

School Environment:

A school’s physical environment includes the school building and the surrounding.

Learning Attitude:

A feeling or way of thinking that affects a person’s behavior.

Classroom Environment:

Is the intellectual, social, emotional and physical environments in which pupils learn.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of environmental factors affecting teaching and learning of adult learners using selected secondary schools in Oko, Anambra State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the impact of environmental factors affecting teaching and learning of adult learners using selected secondary schools in Oko, Anambra State as a case study. The study was specifically set for assessing the impact of environmental factors such as lack of adequate infrastructural/learning, over crowded class room, school location/climate, and the school security situation on the teaching of adult learners in secondary schools.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are adult learners in selected secondary schools in Oko, Anambra State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a significant relationship between school environmental factors and the effective teaching of adult learners.
  2. The level of availability of infrastructural/learning facilities significantly affects the teaching and learning of adult learners.
  3. The over crowded classroom significantly affects the teaching and learning of adult learners.
  4. School location/climate significantly affects the teaching and learning of adult learners.
  5. The school security situation significantly affects the teaching and learning of adult learners.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Educational managers of Nigeria must consider environmental factors in designing educational environments.
  2. Education managers, particularly in the public education sector, through the inspectorate unit of the Ministry of Education should ensure that learning supportive school environments are in place. For instance, schools should be located in low noise areas and there should be adequate open spaces for students to operate, classroom temperature should not be disruptive to teaching and learning, paintings should be moderate, and scent from deodorants and or cleaning liquids should not be offensive.
  3. Regular monitoring, supervision and evaluation of school activities should be carried out to assess participation, involvement, and understanding of the students and offer support when necessary.
  4. The education sector should be appropriately funded to enable the sector acquire the necessary facilities to make the learning environment very adaptable, useful and viable to meet the educational goals of Nigeria.
  5. Seasoned educationist and administrators with good reputation and experience should be appointed as administrators of schools. This will enable them to articulate policies and govern the learning institutions in a way that meets globally acceptable standards.
  6. Outdated school structures and learning facilities should be replace with modern on es that are line with the present students need and societal expectations.

Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Impact Of Environmental Factors Affecting Teaching And Learning Of Adult Learners

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content


Frequently Asked Questions


What are the environmental factors that affect learning?

The Environmental Factors that Affect the Learning Process. 1) Family size. 2) Family culture, traditions. 3) Socio-economic status. 4) Occupation/profession. 5) Parents. 

What are the factors affecting teaching and learning?

The awareness about the factors affecting teaching would help the teacher to make teaching and learning more effective. The factors can be categorised on the following basis: Factors affecting teaching related to Support Material Factors affecting teaching related to Instructional Facilities

How does the home environment affect the learning process?

Some other home environmental factors that affect the learning process directly or indirectly are: The children may be in a nuclear or joint family. In a nuclear family, the learner may find silence with a peaceful learning environment but may not get anyone to assist in their lessons.

How does the learning environment affect the young brain?

The young brain is HIGHLY influenced by environment. Everything we say and do in the learning environment has the potential to positively or negatively impact student competence, confidence and comprehension. Be strategic and cultivate the positive and healthy learning environment our students need. 

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.