Environmental Constraints On The Job Performance Of Office Technology And Management Graduates (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede)
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This research work is dedicated to God Almighty for seeing me through to the end of this academic level. And to my lovely parent.
I want to thank God who has seen me through all these years of unrelenting academic struggle and for his guidance throughout the research work. May his name alone be glorified in Jesus name (Amen).
I am indebted to my project supervisor MR CHRIS NWOSU for his patience and pains taken to supervise this work his constructive criticism, encouragement and guidance that lead to the success of this work is highly appreciated. I appreciate the effort of all the lecturers and staff of office technology and management who have in one way or the other contributed towards the success of my academic career in this school.
My special thanks goes to my lovely parents MR AND MRS GOODWIN NWABUEZE for their financial, moral and spiritual encouragement. I also wish to thank my beloved brothers and sister who have contributed immensely to the success of my career. And to my friends HARRY, KINGSLEY, OBINNA and CHIDINMA may God bless you all.
This research work is meant to find out environmental constrain on the job performance of office technology and management. It deals with how environmental constraints factor affect the productivity that will be implemented and such factors includes;
- Good infrastructure
- Good welfare packages for worker
- Reasonable salary
- Good working environment.
Another step in this work is the use of questionnaires in collecting data and this data is used in analyzing the facts and figures collected, which will prove the accuracy of the facts and figures collected, which will prove the accuracy of the facts. In summary of finding, it shows that organization have got the knowledge and importance of providing good work environment, which mores workers for greater productivity. In recommendation, it maps out that for a organization to achieve its set goals, good working environment should not be neglected and that there are other incentives others are infrastructure that should be provide for workers, which will motivate them for more productivity.
Table Of Contents
- Title page i
- Approval page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgment iv
- Abstract v
- Table of contents vi
- Introduction 1
- Background of the study 1
- State of problem 5
- Research questions 7
- Significance of study 8
- Delimitation of the study 8
- Limitation of study 9
- Definition of terms 10
- Review of related literature 12
- Improvement of productivity 31
- Herberg’s motivation-hygiene theory 36
- Measurement of productivity 39
- Research design and methodology 42
- Research design 43
- Sampling procedures/technique 43
- Method of data analysis 44
- Validity and reliability of the measuring instrument 45
- Presentation and data analysis 47
- Demographic analysis 47
- Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations 56
- Summary of findings 56
- Conclusion 57
- Recommendations 59
- Suggestion for further researches 60
- References 62
- Appendix 64
- Questionnaires 65
Background of the study
Organization is a special activity that must take place within the frame work that society has established. The development and operation of any organization are determine to a large extent measured by the environment in which the organization is, simply the surrounding circumstance and influence within a particular place or working environment.
Consequently Knoots et al (2006 – 21008) defined environment as relating only to business whose socially approved mission is the production and distribution of goods and service that people want and can pay for. But, it is also of great importance to other type of organized enterprises, that is those that take resources, usually from tax payers and provide services desired by the public e.g. government agencies, schools etc. there are two types of environment internal and external environment. But the main focus would be on working environment (internal environment).
The word productivity is simply defined as being productive; the power of being productive increased efficiency and the rate at which goods are produced. According to Taylors principle of scientific management, Taylor saw productivity as the as answer to both higher wages and higher profit.
He believed that the application of its method, instead of customs and rule of thumb could yield their productivity, without the expenditure of more human energy or efforts. In regard to these productivity is universal, countries towns, organization individuals etc, in the world desire to know at one time or the other their levels of productivity, federal Polytechnic Nekede showing concern about it level of productivity.
As a result of these workers should be motivated by receiving productivity bonus. Productivity, is thus central to the social economic life of every organization growth in productivity provides a significant basis for evaluating the potentials of an organization to expand output and improve the standard of living. The working environment must be conducive for effective performance, not only that, reward for hard work must be geared for greater productivity.
It has being notice that non-provision of good working environment has lead to poor productivity in many organizations. Their productivity level is very low because they are faced with poor working environment. This is because all the necessary logistics and material is to work with are not provide the interest on the job will be there.
So, the research work is based on educating our present day employers or managers on how to provide a good working environment to the staff in order to reach or get their objective which is greater productivity in product output and service to the public.
Statement Of Problem
The down turn of the national economy, has affected all areas of public and private establishments both in service they rendered to humanity and profit made the organization. Employers demand productivity from workers but the necessary materials needed for effective performance is lacking. That is why the out put level expected from workers drop day in day out.
The question here is, are employers not aware that environment and circumstance, influences a particular placed? Do they not know that environment plays a role in the production of worker’s and services? That material needed for effective performance show equally be handily always?
Furthermore, employers should also work into the logistics and welfare of workers if actually the need for greater productivity should be attained.
Therefore the research will seek answer to the question raised above through interaction with the staff of two selected firms under study.
The purpose of this study is to identity the environmental constraints on the job performance of office technology and management graduate specifically the study will attempt:
- To examine the impact of work environment on productivity.
- To evaluate the extent to which the average worker responds to good working environment.
- To measure or determine what constitutes good work environment
- To analyze true dangers imposed by poor work environment.
- What is the impact of work environment on productivity?
- To what extent does the average worker respond to good working environment
- What in your opinion constitutes good work environment?
- What are the dangers imposed by poor work environment?
Significance Of Study
This research work intends to help organizations know how to make secretaries easy to handle by providing them with all the necessary materials and good work environment to be able to be commutated to its organization and all same time satisfy their individual needs.
These research will also be of immense value to future researchers conducting similar studies on work environment effects on secretary productivity on other closely related subjects.
Delimitation Of The Study
Good work environment effects on secretary’s performances is an intensive topic which will require a comprehensive research to enable an individual unearth all details and complexities involved in to for the reason, the scope of these work is limited to federal polytechnic Nekede Owerri. Apart from review of related literature where general considerations is give to the topic the actually field of study was based purely on the work environment effect on office technology and management on the productivity in the institution.
Limitation Of Study
In the course of carrying out this research certain constraints were encountered colony the line which are:
Owing to the financial difficultly prevalent in the country and it resulted increase in the process of commodity transportation fares etc. as a study I don’t have much money all the time to keep repeating for the information.
I have a very short time limit for the completion of the project due to personal problem that took all my time.
I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.