Entrenching Preventive Safety And Health Culture As A Strategy For Containing Occupational Safety And Health Hazard In Working Environment

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Entrenching Preventive Safety And Health Culture As A Strategy For Containing Occupational Safety And Health Hazard In Working Environment


Abstract


This study was carried out to assess entrenching preventive safety and health culture as a strategy for containing occupational safety and health hazard in working environment using SAIDI Nigeria Limited as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to determine if imbibing safety and health preventive measures by employees will reduce the occurrence of health crises in working environment, determine if the adoption of occupational safety and health measures as a culture can help minimize the chances of hazard occurrences in working environment, and identify the factors which can impede the cultivation of occupational safety and health measures as a culture in working environment. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff of SAIDI Nigeria Limited. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 148 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the imbibing of safety and health preventive measures by employees will reduce the occurrence of health crises in a working environment. The study also revealed that the adoption of occupational safety and health measures as a culture will help minimize the chances of hazard occurrences in a working environment. Therefore, it is recommended that government should promulgate OHS policies and establish the Department of Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OHSA) with the strong terms of punishment for those who make safety violation. The stakeholders of the construction sector also shall design and commence systems to increase the awareness of all the actors of the industry. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

According to the estimates released by the International Labour Organization (ILO), each year 2.78 million workers die from occupational accidents and work-related diseases (of which 2.4 million are disease-related) and an additional 374 million workers suffer from non-fatal occupational accidents. It is estimated that lost work days globally represent almost 4 percent of the world’s GDP, and in some countries, this rises to 6 percent or more (Hämäläinen et al, 2017; Takala et al, 2014). Aside from the economic cost, there is an intangible cost, not fully recognized in these figures, of the immeasurable human suffering caused by occupational accidents and work-related diseases. This is tragic and regrettable because, as research and practice over the past century has repeatedly demonstrated they are largely preventable.

Hence, a considerable task remains for governments, employers, workers and other stakeholders in building present and future generations of safe and healthy workers. The ILO Global strategy on occupational safety and health, adopted in 2003, provides a framework for these activities. Crucially, the global burden of occupational accidents, work-related diseases and deaths is a significant contributor to the growing global issue of non-communicable and chronic diseases.

Psycho-social risks, work-related stress and noncommunicable diseases are of growing concern for many workers in all working environment. At the same time, many workers remain challenged by persistent work-related safety and health risks and it is important not to overlook the workers who face these risks in working environment.
Achieving effective prevention, however, remains a major challenge in addressing global occupational safety and health (OSH).

It is not only in-house factors that play a role in occupational health and safety — it must also be ensured that products purchased and used by the company meet the occupational health and safety requirements laid down, this is to help ensure that OHS is adopted as a culture in organizations and among workers. Furthermore, it must be recorded in writing how any hazardous substances must be handled in everyday routines in the company.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The extent to which employees are exposed to industrial hazards and diseases has risen a global concern as the adoption and implementation of occupational health and safety measures are not moderately practised to an extent that it is recognized at all levels of operation in many organizations. This however has landed so many workers into be victims of industrial or work-place accidents and/or diseases. Therefore research tends to critically evaluate if entrenching preventive safety and health culture will serve as a strategy for containing Occupational Safety and Health Crisis in construction Firms.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general of this study is to scrupulously examine if entrenching preventive safety and health culture will suffice as a strategy for containing occupational safety and health crisis in working environment. Below are the specific objectives;

  1. Examine if imbibing safety and health preventive measures by employees will reduce the occurrence of health crises in working environment.
  2. Evaluate if the adoption of occupational safety and health measures as a culture can help minimize the chances of hazard occurrences in working environment.
  3. Identify the factors which can impede the cultivation of occupational safety and health measures as a culture in working environment.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions guilds this study;

  1. Will the imbibing of safety and health preventive measures by employees reduce the occurrence of health crises in working environment?
  2. Will the adoption of occupational safety and health measures as a culture help minimize the chances of hazard occurrences in working environment?
  3. What are the factors that can impede the cultivation of occupational safety and health measures as a culture in working environment?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Entrenching preventive safety and health culture is not an effective strategy for containing occupational safety and health crisis in working environment.
  • Ha: Entrenching preventive safety and health culture is an effective strategy for containing occupational safety and health crisis in working environment.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this epistle and the recommendations that will be proffered will be of immense relevant to working environment, its employees and even other organizations as the victimization of workers in workplace hazards has risen global concern and must be tackled with all hands on the desk. To students, researchers, teachers and other individuals will find this study to be useful as it will serve as a source of information.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study examines only the need for entrenching preventive safety and health culture as a strategy for containing occupational safety and health crisis in a working environment. Thus, the study is delimited to SAIDI Nigeria Limited;


1.8 Limitation of the Study

As a result of this study, the researcher encountered the following challenges;

Inadequate Finance:

The research was face with problem of inadequate fund which hinder the researcher from covering as much location as possible.

Time:

Time factor pose another constraint since having to cope in this research which went simultaneously within the time schedule of other academic work making it impossible to undertake this study in large more representative skill.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Entrenching:

To establish (an attitude, habit, or belief) so firmly that change is very difficult or unlikely

Preventive Measures:

This includes the measures or steps taken for prevention of disease as opposed to disease treatment

Culture:

The ideas, customs, and social behaviour towards a particular activity or practice.

Strategy:

A plan of action designed to achieve a long-term or overall aim.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on entrenching preventive safety and health culture as a strategy for containing occupational safety and health hazard in working environment using SAIDI Nigeria Limited as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on entrenching preventive safety and health culture as a strategy for containing occupational safety and health hazard in working environment using SAIDI Nigeria Limited as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to determine if imbibing safety and health preventive measures by employees will reduce the occurrence of health crises in working environment, determine if the adoption of occupational safety and health measures as a culture can help minimize the chances of hazard occurrences in working environment, and identify the factors which can impede the cultivation of occupational safety and health measures as a culture in working environment.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staff of SAIDI Nigeria Limited.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The imbibing of safety and health preventive measures by employees will reduce the occurrence of health crises in a working environment.
  2. The adoption of occupational safety and health measures as a culture will help minimize the chances of hazard occurrences in a working environment.
  3. The factors that can impede the cultivation of occupational safety and health measures as a culture in a working environment include; shortage of knowledge and training, lack of supervision, biological agents, awareness about the safe implementation of assigned work, ergonomic hazards, lack of knowledge and pattern of illness, and apathy and total carelessness.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Government should promulgate OHS policies and establish the Department of Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OHSA) with the strong terms of punishment for those who make safety violation. The stakeholders of the construction sector also shall design and commence systems to increase the awareness of all the actors of the industry.
  2. The country has should have legal frameworks for compulsory insurance systems for occupational injuries. Due attention has to be given to employment injury benefits.
  3. Consultants shall give advice to clients and contractors on the importance of OSH management. They also need to include the subject of health and safety during bid document preparation.
  4. Strict inspection of scaffolding installation and working platforms shall be made to minimize the risk of falls from heights. Design of scaffoldings shall be compulsory. The use of eucalyptus poles for scaffolding shall be avoided, especially for high rise buildings.
  5. The government shall monitor the safety performance of construction sites during the entire construction period. The number of labor inspectors has to be proportional to the extent of the OSH related problems in the country. Moreover; there should be a unified labor inspection system.
  6. The poor safety culture of the construction site workers has to be improved by conducting OSH training immediately as they are hired to work in construction sites. The workers need to be provided with appropriate PPE with equivalent training how to use the equipment.

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